Australian Road Rules (1999 SI arr)



Part 1 Introductory
Division 1 General
These rules are the Australian Road Rules.
2   Commencement
The Australian Road Rules commence on 1 December 1999 or, if an earlier date is fixed under another law of this jurisdiction, that earlier date.
3   Object of the Australian Road Rules
The object of the Australian Road Rules is to provide road rules in this jurisdiction that are uniform with road rules elsewhere in Australia.
Division 2 Some features of the Australian Road Rules
4   Definitions—the dictionary etc
(1)  The dictionary at the end of the Australian Road Rules defines certain words and expressions, and includes references to certain words and expressions defined elsewhere in the Rules (signpost definitions).
Example—
The signpost definition “road-related area see rule 13” means that the expression road-related area is defined in rule 13 of the Australian Road Rules.
Note—
The dictionary only includes a signpost definition for a word or expression if the word or expression is used in 2 or more rules of the Australian Road Rules.
(2)  The dictionary is part of the Australian Road Rules.
(3)  A definition in the Australian Road Rules applies to each use of the word or expression in the Rules, unless the contrary intention appears.
5   Diagrams
A diagram in the Australian Road Rules is part of the Rules.
Note 1—
If a diagram of a traffic control device, traffic-related item or symbol is in black and white in a rule of the Australian Road Rules, the diagram may be a black and white version of the device, item or symbol—see rule 314. If so, the colour version of the device, item or symbol will be in Schedule 2 or 4.
Note 2—
A diagram may be an example—see rule 6 (1).
6   Examples
(1)  An example (whether or not in the form of a diagram) in the Australian Road Rules is part of the Rules.
(2)  If the Australian Road Rules includes an example of the operation of a provision of the Rules:
(a)  the example is not exhaustive, and
(b)  the example does not limit, but may extend, the meaning of the provision.
7   Headings
A heading to a Part, Division, Schedule, rule or any other provision of the Australian Road Rules is part of the Rules.
8   Notes
A note in the Australian Road Rules is explanatory and is not part of the Rules.
9   Reader’s Guide
The Reader’s Guide is not part of the Australian Road Rules.
10   Offences
(1)  The words “Offence provision.” in a rule of the Australian Road Rules (or, if the rule has 2 or more subrules, in a subrule) indicates that a contravention of the rule (or subrule) is an offence.
(2)  The penalty for an offence is the penalty applying to the offence under another law of this jurisdiction.
Part 2 Application of the Australian Road Rules
Division 1 Roads and road-related areas
11   Australian Road Rules apply to vehicles and road users on roads and road-related areas
(1)  The Australian Road Rules apply to vehicles and road users on roads and road-related areas.
Note—
Road is defined in rule 12, road-related area is defined in rule 13, road user is defined in rule 14, and vehicle is defined in rule 15.
(2)  Each reference in the Australian Road Rules (except in this Division) to a road includes a reference to a road-related area, unless otherwise expressly stated in the Rules.
Examples for subrule (2)—
1   
A reference in rule 146 (which deals with driving within a single marked lane or line of traffic) to the road includes a reference to the road-related area of the road.
2   
A reference in rule 200 (1) (which deals with certain heavy or long vehicles stopping on roads) to a length of road includes a reference to the road-related area of the length of road.
3   
A reference in rule 31 (which deals with starting a right turn from a road, except a multi-lane road) to a road does not include a reference to a road-related area, because of the definition in subrule (5) of that rule.
12   What is a road
(1)  A road is an area that is open to or used by the public and is developed for, or has as one of its main uses, the driving or riding of motor vehicles.
Note—
Motor vehicle is defined in the dictionary.
(2)  However, unless the contrary intention appears, a reference in the Australian Road Rules (except in this Division) to a road does not include a reference to:
(a)  an area so far as the area is declared, under another law of this jurisdiction, not to be a road for the Australian Road Rules, or
(b)  any shoulder of the road.
(3)  The shoulder of the road includes any part of the road that is not designed to be used by motor vehicles in travelling along the road, and includes:
(a)  for a kerbed road—any part of the kerb, and
(b)  for a sealed road—any unsealed part of the road, and any sealed part of the road outside an edge line on the road,
but does not include a bicycle path, footpath or shared path.
Note—
Bicycle path is defined in rule 239, edge line and footpath are defined in the dictionary, and shared path is defined in rule 242.
13   What is a road-related area
(1)  A road-related area is any of the following:
(a)  an area that divides a road,
(b)  a footpath or nature strip adjacent to a road,
(c)  an area that is not a road and that is open to the public and designated for use by cyclists or animals,
(d)  an area that is not a road and that is open to or used by the public for driving, riding or parking vehicles.
Note—
Vehicle is defined in rule 15.
(2)  However, unless the contrary intention appears, a reference in the Australian Road Rules (except in this Division) to a road-related area includes a reference to:
(a)  an area so far as the area is declared, under another law of this jurisdiction, to be a road-related area for the Australian Road Rules, or
(b)  any shoulder of a road, or
(c)  any other area that is a footpath or nature strip as defined in the dictionary,
but does not include a reference to an area so far as the area is declared, under another law of this jurisdiction, not to be a road-related area for the Australian Road Rules.
Note—
Shoulder is defined in rule 12.
Division 2 Road users and vehicles
14   Road users
A road user is a driver, rider, passenger or pedestrian.
Note—
Driver is defined in rule 16, pedestrian is defined in rule 18, and rider is defined in rule 17.
15   What is a vehicle
A vehicle includes:
(a)  a motor vehicle, trailer and tram, and
(b)  a bicycle, and
(c)  an animal-drawn vehicle, and an animal that is being ridden or drawing a vehicle, and
(d)  a combination, and
(e)  a motorised wheelchair that can travel at over 10 kilometres per hour (on level ground),
but does not include another kind of wheelchair, a train, or a wheeled recreational device or wheeled toy.
Note—
Various terms mentioned in this rule are defined in the dictionary.
16   Who is a driver
(1)  A driver is the person who is driving a vehicle (except a motor bike, bicycle, animal or animal-drawn vehicle).
Note 1—
Bicycle and motor bike are defined in the dictionary, and vehicle is defined in rule 15.
Note 2—
Drive includes be in control of—see the definition in the dictionary.
(2)  However, a driver does not include a person pushing a motorised wheelchair.
Note—
Wheelchair is defined in the dictionary.
17   Who is a rider
(1)  A rider is the person who is riding a motor bike, bicycle, animal or animal-drawn vehicle.
Note 1—
Bicycle and motor bike are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Ride, for the rider of a motor bike or animal-drawn vehicle, includes be in control of—see the definition in the dictionary.
(2)  A rider does not include:
(a)  a passenger, or
(b)  a person walking beside and pushing a bicycle.
18   Who is a pedestrian
A pedestrian includes:
(a)  a person driving a motorised wheelchair that cannot travel at over 10 kilometres per hour (on level ground), and
(b)  a person in a non-motorised wheelchair, and
(c)  a person pushing a motorised or non-motorised wheelchair, and
(d)  a person in or on a wheeled recreational device or wheeled toy.
Note—
Wheelchair, wheeled recreational device and wheeled toy are defined in the dictionary.
19   References to driver includes rider etc
Unless otherwise expressly stated in the Australian Road Rules, each reference in the Rules (except in this Division) to a driver includes a reference to a rider, and each reference in the Rules (except in this Division) to driving includes a reference to riding.
Part 3 Speed-limits
20   Obeying the speed-limit
A driver must not drive at a speed over the speed-limit applying to the driver for the length of road where the driver is driving.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
The rules about speed-limits are as follows:
  rule 21—speed-limit where a speed-limit sign applies
  rule 22—speed-limit in a speed-limited area
  rule 23—speed-limit in a school zone
  rule 24—speed-limit in a shared zone
  rule 25—speed-limit elsewhere.
Note 2—
Road includes a road-related area—see rule 11 (2).
Note 3—
Length of road includes a marked lane, a part of a marked lane, or another part of a length of road—see the definition in the dictionary.
Note 4—
Part 20, Division 2 deals with the way in which a traffic sign applies to a length of road. Part 20, Division 3 deals with the way in which the traffic sign applies to drivers driving on the length of road.
21   Speed-limit where a speed-limit sign applies
(1)  The speed-limit applying to a driver for a length of road to which a speed-limit sign applies is the number of kilometres per hour indicated by the number on the sign.
Note—
Length of road is defined in the dictionary.
(2)  However, if the number on the speed-limit sign is over 100 and the driver is driving a bus with a GVM over 5 tonnes, or another vehicle with a GVM over 12 tonnes, the speed-limit applying to the driver for the length of road is 100 kilometres per hour.
Note 1—
Bus and GVM are defined in the dictionary, and vehicle is defined in rule 15.
Note 2—
Five tonnes is specified for the definition of heavy omnibus in the Australian Design Rules issued under the Motor Vehicle Standards Act 1989 (Cth).
Note 3—
If the vehicle is an oversize or overmass vehicle, the vehicle may be restricted to a lower speed-limit under another law of this jurisdiction.
(3)  A speed-limit sign on a road applies to the length of road beginning at the sign and ending at the nearest of the following:
(a)  a speed-limit sign on the road with a different number on the sign,
(b)  an end speed-limit sign or speed derestriction sign on the road,
(c)  if the road ends at a T-intersection or dead end—the end of the road.
Note 1—
T-intersection is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 322 (1) and (2) deal with the meaning of a traffic sign on a road.
Speed-limit signs
Speed-limit sign(Standard sign)
Speed-limit sign(Variable illuminated message sign)
Other signs
End speed-limit sign
Speed derestriction sign
Note 1 for diagrams—
There is another permitted version of the speed-limit sign and the end speed-limit sign—see the diagrams in Schedule 3.
Note 2 for diagrams—
A speed-limit sign or end speed-limit sign may have a different number on the sign—see rule 316 (4).
22   Speed-limit in a speed-limited area
(1)  The speed-limit applying to a driver for any length of road in a speed-limited area is the number of kilometres per hour indicated by the number on the area speed-limit sign on a road into the area, unless another speed-limit applies to the driver for the length of road under another rule of this Part.
Example of another speed-limit—
Although an area speed-limit sign on a road into a speed-limited area may indicate a speed-limit of 60 kilometres per hour, a particular length of road in the area may have a school zone sign indicating a 40 kilometres per hour speed-limit for that length of road.
Note—
Length of road is defined in the dictionary.
(2)  A speed-limited area is the network of roads in an area with:
(a)  an area speed-limit sign on each road into the area, indicating the same number, and
(b)  an end area speed-limit sign on each road out of the area.
(3)  In subrule (2) (a) and (b):
road does not include a road-related area.
Note—
Road-related area is defined in rule 13.
Area speed-limit sign
End area speed-limit sign
Note 1 for diagrams—
There are a number of other permitted versions of each of these signs—see the diagrams in Schedule 3.
Note 2 for diagrams—
An area speed-limit sign or end area speed-limit sign may have a different number on the sign—see rule 316 (4).
23   Speed-limit in a school zone
(1)  The speed-limit applying to a driver for any length of road in a school zone is the number of kilometres per hour indicated by the number on the school zone sign on a road, or the road, into the zone.
Note 1—
Length of road is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
A school zone sign may indicate that it applies only at certain times, on certain days or in certain circumstances—see rules 317 and 318.
Note 3—
This subrule applies to road-related areas in the school zone—see rule 11 (2).
(2)  A school zone is:
(a)  if there is a school zone sign and an end school zone sign, or a speed-limit sign with a different number on the sign, on a road and there is no intersection on the length of road between the signs—that length of road, or
(b)  if there is a school zone sign on a road that ends in a dead end and there is no intersection, nor a sign mentioned in paragraph (a), on the length of road beginning at the sign and ending at the dead end—that length of road, or
(c)  in any other case—the network of roads in an area with:
(i)  a school zone sign on each road into the area, indicating the same number, and
(ii)  an end school zone sign, or a speed-limit sign indicating a different number, on each road out of the area.
Note—
Intersection is defined in the dictionary.
(3)  In subrule (2) (c) (i) and (ii):
road does not include a road-related area.
Note—
Road-related area is defined in rule 13.
School zone sign
End school zone sign
Note 1 for diagrams—
There are a number of other permitted versions of each of these signs—see the diagrams in Schedule 3.
Note 2 for diagrams—
A school zone sign or end school zone sign may have a different number on the sign—see rule 316 (4).
24   Speed-limit in a shared zone
(1)  The speed-limit applying to a driver for any length of road in a shared zone is the number of kilometres per hour indicated by the number on the shared zone sign on a road into the zone.
Note—
A driver driving in a shared zone must give way to any pedestrian in the zone—see rule 83.
(2)  A shared zone is the network of roads in an area with:
(a)  a shared zone sign on each road into the area, indicating the same number, and
(b)  an end shared zone sign on each road out of the area.
(3)  In subrule (2) (a) and (b):
road does not include a road-related area.
Note—
Road-related area is defined in rule 13.
Shared zone sign
End shared zone sign
Note 1 for diagrams—
There are a number of other permitted versions of each of these signs—see the diagrams in Schedule 3.
Note 2 for diagrams—
A shared zone sign may have a different number on the sign—see rule 316 (4).
25   Speed-limit elsewhere
(1)  If a speed-limit sign does not apply to a length of road and the length of road is not in a speed-limited area, school zone or shared zone, the speed-limit applying to a driver for the length of road is the default speed-limit.
Note—
Length of road is defined in the dictionary, school zone is defined in rule 23, shared zone is defined in rule 24, and speed-limited area is defined in rule 22.
(2)  The default speed-limit applying to a driver for a length of road in a built-up area is 60 kilometres per hour.
Note—
Built-up area is defined in the dictionary.
(3)  The default speed-limit applying to a driver for any other length of road is:
(a)  for a driver driving a bus with a GVM over 5 tonnes, or another vehicle with a GVM over 12 tonnes—100 kilometres per hour, or
(b)  for any other driver—100 kilometres per hour or as otherwise provided under another law of this jurisdiction.
Note 1—
Bus and GVM are defined in the dictionary, and vehicle is defined in rule 15.
Note 2—
Five tonnes is specified for the definition of heavy omnibus in the Australian Design Rules issued under the Motor Vehicle Standards Act 1989 (Cth).
Note 3—
If the vehicle is an oversize or overmass vehicle, the vehicle may be restricted to a lower speed-limit under another law of this jurisdiction.
Part 4 Making turns
Division 1 Left turns at intersections
26   Division does not apply to certain turns
(1)  This Division does not apply to:
(a)  a driver turning from a road into a road-related area or adjacent land, or from a road-related area into a road, or
(b)  a driver entering or leaving a roundabout.
(2)  In this rule:
road does not include a road-related area.
Note 1—
Adjacent land is defined in the dictionary, road-related area is defined in rule 13, and roundabout is defined in rule 109.
Note 2—
Division 5 of this Part deals with turning into or from a road-related area or adjacent land, and Part 9 deals with entering and leaving a roundabout.
Note 3—
For the meaning of left, see rule 351 (1).
27   Starting a left turn from a road (except a multi-lane road)
(1)  A driver turning left at an intersection from a road (except a multi-lane road) must approach and enter the intersection from as near as practicable to the far left side of the road.
Offence provision.
(2)  In this rule:
road does not include a road-related area.
Note 1—
Intersection and multi-lane road are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Road-related area includes any shoulder of a road—see rule 13.
Example—
Starting a left turn from a road (except a multi-lane road)
28   Starting a left turn from a multi-lane road
(1)  A driver turning left at an intersection from a multi-lane road must approach and enter the intersection from within the left lane unless:
(a)  the driver is required or permitted to approach and enter the intersection from within another marked lane under rule 88 (1), 92 or 159, or
(b)  the driver is turning, at B lights or traffic arrows, in accordance with Division 2 of Part 17, or
(c)  subrule (2) applies to the driver.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
B lights, intersection, marked lane, multi-lane road, public bus and traffic arrows are defined in the dictionary, and left lane is defined in subrule (3).
Note 2—
Rule 88 (1) deals with left turn only signs, rule 92 deals with traffic lane arrows, and rule 159 deals with traffic signs requiring particular kinds of vehicles to drive in an indicated marked lane.
Note 3—
Division 2 of Part 17 provides for priority to be given to public buses at intersections with B lights or a white traffic arrow.
Example for subrule (1) (a)—
Starting a left turn on a multi-lane road with traffic lane arrows as required or permitted under rule 92
(2)  A driver may approach and enter the intersection from the marked lane next to the left lane as well as, or instead of, the left lane if:
(a)  the driver’s vehicle, together with any load or projection, is 7.5 metres long, or longer, and
(b)  the vehicle displays a do not overtake turning vehicle sign, and
(c)  any part of the vehicle is within 50 metres of the nearest point of the intersection, and
(d)  it is not practicable for the driver to turn left from within the left lane, and
(e)  the driver can safely occupy the next marked lane and can safely turn left at the intersection by occupying the next marked lane, or both lanes.
Note 1—
Driver’s vehicle is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Vehicle includes a combination—see rule 15 (d).
Note 3—
Under the law of this jurisdiction, only certain long vehicles may display a do not overtake turning vehicle sign.
Example—
Long vehicle turning left from the left lane and next marked lane
(3)  In this rule:
left lane means:
(a)  the marked lane nearest to the far left side of the road, or
(b)  if there is an obstruction (for example, a parked car or roadworks) in that marked lane—the marked lane nearest to that marked lane that is not obstructed.
marked lane, for a driver, does not include a special purpose lane in which the driver is not permitted to drive.
Note 1—
Obstruction and special purpose lane are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 95 deals with driving in an emergency stopping lane and Part 11, Division 6 deals with driving in other special purpose lanes.
Do not overtake turning vehicle signs
Note for diagrams—
These signs are displayed on certain long vehicles.
29   Making a left turn as indicated by a road marking
If a driver is turning left at an intersection and there is a road marking indicating how the turn is required to be made, the driver must make the turn as indicated by the road marking.
Offence provision.
Note—
Intersection and road marking are defined in the dictionary.
Example—
Making a left turn as indicated by road markings
Division 2 Right turns (except hook turns) at intersections
30   Division does not apply to certain turns
(1)  This Division does not apply to:
(a)  a driver turning right at an intersection where there is a hook turn only sign, or
(b)  the rider of a bicycle making a hook turn under Division 3, or
(c)  a driver turning from a road into a road-related area or adjacent land, or from a road-related area into a road, or
(d)  a driver making a U-turn, or
(e)  a driver entering or leaving a roundabout.
(2)  In subrule (1) (c):
road does not include a road-related area.
Note 1—
Adjacent land, bicycle, intersection and U-turn are defined in the dictionary, road-related area is defined in rule 13, and roundabout is defined in rule 109.
Note 2—
Division 3 of this Part deals with hook turns, Division 4 deals with U-turns, Division 5 deals with turns into or from a road-related area or adjacent land, and Part 9 deals with entering and leaving a roundabout.
Note 3—
For the meaning of right, see rule 351 (2).
31   Starting a right turn from a road (except a multi-lane road)
(1)  A driver turning right at an intersection from a road (except a multi-lane road) must approach and enter the intersection in accordance with this rule.
Offence provision.
Note—
Intersection and multi-lane road are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  If the road has a dividing line or median strip, the driver must approach and enter the intersection from the left of, parallel to, and as near as practicable to, the dividing line or median strip.
Note—
Dividing line and median strip are defined in the dictionary.
(3)  If the road does not have a dividing line or median strip and is not a one-way road, the driver must approach and enter the intersection from the left of, parallel to, and as near as practicable to, the centre of the road.
Note—
Centre of the road and one-way road are defined in the dictionary.
(4)  If the road is a one-way road, the driver must approach and enter the intersection from as near as practicable to the far right side of the road.
(5)  In this rule:
road does not include a road-related area.
Note—
Road-related area includes any shoulder of a road—see rule 13.
Examples—
Example 1Starting a right turn from a road with a dividing line
Example 2Starting a right turn from a one-way road
32   Starting a right turn from a multi-lane road
(1)  A driver turning right at an intersection from a multi-lane road must approach and enter the intersection from within the right lane unless:
(a)  the driver is required or permitted to approach and enter the intersection from within another marked lane in accordance with rule 89 (1), 92 or 159, or
(b)  the driver is turning, at B lights or traffic arrows, in accordance with Division 2 of Part 17, or
(c)  subrule (2) applies to the driver.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
B lights, intersection, marked lane, multi-lane road, public bus and traffic arrows are defined in the dictionary, and right lane is defined in subrule (3).
Note 2—
Rule 89 (1) deals with right turn only signs, rule 92 deals with traffic lane arrows, and rule 159 deals with traffic signs requiring particular kinds of vehicles to drive in an indicated marked lane.
Note 3—
Division 2 of Part 17 provides for priority to be given to public buses at intersections with B lights or a white traffic arrow.
Example for subrule (1) (a)—
Starting a right turn on a multi-lane road with traffic lane arrows as required or permitted under rule 92
(2)  A driver may approach and enter the intersection from the marked lane next to the right lane as well as, or instead of, the right lane if:
(a)  the driver’s vehicle, together with any load or projection, is 7.5 metres long, or longer, and
(b)  the vehicle displays a do not overtake turning vehicle sign, and
(c)  any part of the vehicle is within 50 metres of the nearest point of the intersection, and
(d)  it is not practicable for the driver to turn right from within the right lane, and
(e)  the driver can safely occupy the next marked lane and can safely turn right at the intersection by occupying the next marked lane, or both lanes.
Note 1—
Driver’s vehicle is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Vehicle includes a combination—see rule 15 (d).
Note 3—
Under the law of this jurisdiction, only certain long vehicles may display a do not overtake turning vehicle sign.
(3)  In this rule:
marked lane, for a driver, does not include a special purpose lane in which the driver is not permitted to drive.
right lane means:
(a)  the marked lane nearest to the dividing line or median strip on the road, or
(b)  if there is an obstruction (for example, a parked car or roadworks) in that marked lane—the marked lane nearest to that marked lane that is not obstructed.
Note 1—
Dividing line, median strip, obstruction and special purpose lane are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 95 deals with driving in an emergency stopping lane and Part 11, Division 6 deals with driving in other special purpose lanes.
Do not overtake turning vehicle signs
Note for diagrams—
These signs are displayed on certain long vehicles.
33   Making a right turn
(1)  A driver turning right at an intersection (except a T-intersection) must make the turn in accordance with this rule.
Offence provision.
Note—
Intersection and T-intersection are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  If there is a road marking indicating how the turn is required to be made, the driver must make the turn as indicated by the road marking.
Note—
Road marking is defined in the dictionary.
(3)  If there is no road marking indicating how the turn is required to be made, the driver must make the turn so the driver passes as near as practicable to the right of the centre of the intersection.
Examples—
Example 1Making a right turn as indicated by road markings
Example 2Making a right turn from a road with no road marking indicating how to make the turn
Division 3 Hook turns at intersections
34   Making a hook turn at a hook turn only sign
(1)  A driver turning right at an intersection with traffic lights and a hook turn only sign must turn right by making a hook turn in accordance with this rule.
Offence provision.
Note—
Intersection and traffic lights are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  To make a hook turn, the driver must take, in sequence, each of the following steps:
1  Approach and enter the intersection from as near as practicable to the far left side of the road that the driver is leaving.
2  Move forward, keeping as near as practicable to the left of the intersection and clear of any marked foot crossing, until the driver is as near as practicable to the far side of the road that the driver is entering.
3  Remain at the position reached under step 2 until the traffic lights on the road that the driver is entering change to green.
4  Turn right into that road.
Note—
Marked foot crossing is defined in the dictionary.
(3)  In this rule:
road does not include a road-related area.
Note—
Road-related area is defined in rule 13.
 
Example.
Hook turn only sign
Making a hook turn at a hook turn only sign
35   Optional hook turn by a bicycle rider
(1)  The rider of a bicycle turning right at an intersection without a hook turn only sign, or a no hook turn by bicycles sign, may turn right at the intersection by making a right turn under Division 2 or a hook turn under this rule.
Note—
Bicycle and intersection are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  The rider must make a hook turn under this rule in accordance with subrule (3).
Offence provision.
(3)  To make a hook turn under this rule, the rider must take, in sequence, each of the following steps:
1  Approach and enter the intersection from as near as practicable to the far left side of the road that the rider is leaving.
2  Move forward:
(a)  keeping as near as practicable to the far left side of the intersection, and
(b)  keeping clear of any marked foot crossing, and
(c)  keeping clear, as far as practicable, of any driver turning left from the left of the intersection,
until the rider is as near as practicable to the far side of the road that the rider is entering.
3  If there are traffic lights at the intersection, remain at the position reached under step 2 until the traffic lights on the road that the rider is entering change to green.
4  If there are no traffic lights at the intersection, remain at the position reached under step 2 until the rider has given way to approaching drivers on the road that the rider is leaving.
5  Turn right into the road that the rider is entering.
Note—
Approaching and marked foot crossing is defined in the dictionary.
Example—
Bicycle rider making a hook turn at an intersection without traffic lights
36   Bicycle rider making a hook turn contrary to no hook turn by bicycles sign
The rider of a bicycle must not make a hook turn at an intersection that has a no hook turn by bicycles sign.
Offence provision.
Note—
Bicycle and intersection are defined in the dictionary.
No hook turn by bicycles sign
Division 4 U-turns
Note—
U-turn is defined in the dictionary.
37   Beginning a U-turn
A driver must not begin a U-turn unless:
(a)  the driver has a clear view of any approaching traffic, and
(b)  the driver can safely make the U-turn without unreasonably obstructing the free movement of traffic.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Approaching traffic means traffic approaching from any direction—see the definition in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Traffic is defined in the dictionary.
38   Giving way when making a U-turn
A driver making a U-turn must give way to all vehicles and pedestrians.
Offence provision.
Note—
For this rule, give way means the driver must slow down and, if necessary stop, to avoid a collision—see the definition in the dictionary.
39   Making a U-turn contrary to a no U-turn sign
(1)  A driver must not make a U-turn at a break in a dividing strip on a road if there is a no U-turn sign at the break in the dividing strip.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Dividing strip is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 322 (5) and (6) deal with the meaning of a traffic sign at a break in a dividing strip.
(2)  A driver must not make a U-turn on a length of road to which a no U-turn sign applies.
Offence provision.
Note—
Length of road is defined in the dictionary.
(3)  A no U-turn sign on a road (except a no U-turn sign at an intersection or at a break in a dividing strip) applies to the length of road beginning at the sign and ending at the nearer of the following:
(a)  the next intersection on the road,
(b)  if the road ends at a T-intersection or dead end—the end of the road.
Note 1—
Intersection and T-intersection are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 322 (1) and (2) deal with the meaning of a traffic sign on a road.
No U-turn signs
No U-turn sign(Standard sign)
No U-turn sign(Variable illuminated message sign)
Note for diagrams—
There is another permitted version of each of these no U-turn signs—see the diagrams in Schedule 3.
40   Making a U-turn at an intersection with traffic lights
A driver must not make a U-turn at an intersection with traffic lights unless there is a U-turn permitted sign at the intersection.
Offence provision.
Note—
Intersection and traffic lights are defined in the dictionary.
U-turn permitted sign
41   Making a U-turn at an intersection without traffic lights
A driver must not make a U-turn at an intersection without traffic lights if there is a no U-turn sign at the intersection.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Intersection and traffic lights are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
U-turns are permitted at intersections without traffic lights unless there is a no U-turn sign, even though traffic lane arrows indicate that the driver must or may turn right—see rule 92.
42   Starting a U-turn at an intersection
A driver making a U-turn at an intersection must start the U-turn:
(a)  if the road where the driver is turning has a dividing line or median strip—from the marked lane nearest, or as near as practicable, to the dividing line or median strip, or
(b)  in any other case—from the left of the centre of the road.
Offence provision.
Note—
Centre of the road, dividing line, intersection, marked lane and median strip are defined in the dictionary.
Example—
Starting a U-turn on a road with a median strip
Division 5 Turns into or from road-related areas or adjacent land
43   Starting and making turns
(1)  A driver turning left from a road into a road-related area or adjacent land, or from a road-related area into a road, must comply with Division 1 as if the driver were turning left at an intersection.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Adjacent land is defined in the dictionary, and road-related area is defined in rule 13. Adjacent land or a road-related area can include a driveway, service station or shopping centre—see the definitions. Some shopping centres may include roads—see the definition of road in rule 12.
Note 2—
For the meaning of left and right, see rule 351 (1) and (2).
(2)  A driver turning right from a road into a road-related area or adjacent land, or from a road-related area into a road, must comply with Division 2 as if the driver were turning right at an intersection.
Offence provision.
(3)  In this rule:
road does not include a road-related area.
Note 1—
A road-related area includes the shoulder of a road—see rule 13.
Note 2—
Rule 74 deals with the give way rules applying to a driver entering a road from a road-related area or adjacent land, and rule 75 deals with the give way rules applying to a driver entering a road-related area or adjacent land from a road.
Note 3—
Rule 212 deals with a driver entering and leaving a median strip parking area.
Part 5 Change of direction and stop signals
Division 1 Change of direction signals
44   Division does not apply to entering or leaving a roundabout
This Division does not apply to a driver entering, in or leaving a roundabout.
Note—
Part 9 deals with giving change of direction signals when entering or leaving a roundabout.
45   What is changing direction
(1)  A driver changes direction if the driver changes direction to the left or the driver changes direction to the right.
(2)  A driver changes direction to the left by doing any of the following:
(a)  turning left,
(b)  changing marked lanes to the left,
(c)  diverging to the left,
(d)  entering a marked lane, or a line of traffic, to the left,
(e)  moving to the left from a stationary position,
(f)  turning left into a marked lane, or a line of traffic, from a median strip parking area,
(g)  at a T-intersection where the continuing road curves to the right—leaving the continuing road to proceed straight ahead onto the terminating road.
Note 1—
Marked lane and median strip parking area are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
For the meaning of left, see rule 351 (1).
(3)  A driver changes direction to the right by doing any of the following:
(a)  turning right,
(b)  changing marked lanes to the right,
(c)  diverging to the right,
(d)  entering a marked lane, or a line of traffic, to the right,
(e)  moving to the right from a stationary position,
(f)  turning right into a marked lane, or a line of traffic, from a median strip parking area,
(g)  making a U-turn,
(h)  at a T-intersection where the continuing road curves to the left—leaving the continuing road to proceed straight ahead onto the terminating road.
Note 1—
U-turn is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
For the meaning of right, see rule 351 (2).
Examples for subrules (2) (g) and (3) (h)—
Example 1Driver indicating change of direction at a T-intersection where the continuing road curves to the right and the driver is proceeding straight ahead onto the terminating road
Example 2Driver indicating change of direction at a T-intersection where the continuing road curves to the left and the driver is proceeding straight ahead onto the terminating road
46   Giving a left change of direction signal
(1)  Before a driver changes direction to the left, the driver must give a left change of direction signal in accordance with rule 47 for long enough to comply with subrule (2) and, if subrule (3) applies to the driver, that subrule.
Offence provision.
Note—
Changes direction to the left is defined in rule 45 (2).
(2)  The driver must give the change of direction signal for long enough to give sufficient warning to other drivers and pedestrians.
(3)  If the driver is about to change direction by moving from a stationary position at the side of the road or in a median strip parking area, the driver must give the change of direction signal for at least 5 seconds before the driver changes direction.
Note—
Median strip parking area is defined in the dictionary.
(4)  The driver must stop giving the change of direction signal as soon as the driver completes the change of direction.
Offence provision.
(5)  This rule does not apply to a driver if the driver’s vehicle is not fitted with direction indicator lights.
Note—
Driver’s vehicle is defined in the dictionary.
47   How to give a left change of direction signal
The driver of a vehicle must give a left change of direction signal by operating the vehicle’s left direction indicator lights.
48   Giving a right change of direction signal
(1)  Before a driver changes direction to the right, the driver must give a right change of direction signal in accordance with rule 49 for long enough to comply with subrule (2) and, if subrule (3) applies to the driver, that subrule.
Offence provision.
Note—
Changes direction to the right is defined in rule 45 (3).
(2)  The driver must give the change of direction signal for long enough to give sufficient warning to other drivers and pedestrians.
(3)  If the driver is about to change direction by moving from a stationary position at the side of the road or in a median strip parking area, the driver must give the change of direction signal for at least 5 seconds before the driver changes direction.
Note—
Median strip parking area is defined in the dictionary.
(4)  The driver must stop giving the change of direction signal as soon as the driver completes the change of direction.
Offence provision.
(5)  This rule does not apply to:
(a)  the driver of a tram that is not fitted with direction indicator lights, or
(b)  the rider of a bicycle making a hook turn.
Note 1—
Bicycle and tram are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rules 34 and 35 deal with bicycles making hook turns.
49   How to give a right change of direction signal
(1)  The driver of a vehicle must give a right change of direction signal by operating the vehicle’s right direction indicator lights.
(2)  However, if the vehicle’s direction indicator lights are not in working order or are not clearly visible, or the vehicle is not fitted with direction indicator lights, the driver must give the change of direction signal by giving a hand signal in accordance with rule 50, or using a mechanical signalling device fitted to the vehicle.
Note—
Mechanical signalling device is defined in the dictionary.
50   How to give a right change of direction signal by giving a hand signal
To give a hand signal for changing direction to the right, the driver must extend the right arm and hand horizontally and at right angles from the right side of the vehicle, with the hand open and the palm facing the direction of travel.
Example—
Giving a hand signal for changing direction to the right
51   When use of direction indicator lights permitted
The driver of a vehicle must not operate a direction indicator light except:
(a)  to give a change of direction signal when the driver is required to give the signal under the Australian Road Rules, or
(b)  as part of the vehicle’s hazard warning lights.
Offence provision.
Note—
Rule 221 deals with the use of hazard warning lights.
Division 2 Stop signals
52   Division does not apply to bicycle riders or certain tram drivers
This Division does not apply to the rider of a bicycle, or the driver of a tram that is not fitted with brake lights.
Note—
Bicycle and tram are defined in the dictionary.
53   Giving a stop signal
(1)  A driver must give a stop signal in accordance with rule 54 before stopping or when suddenly slowing.
Offence provision.
(2)  If the driver is stopping, the driver must give the stop signal for long enough to give sufficient warning to other road users.
Offence provision.
(3)  If the driver is slowing suddenly, the driver must give the stop signal while slowing.
Offence provision.
54   How to give a stop signal
(1)  The driver of a vehicle must give a stop signal by means of the vehicle’s brake lights.
(2)  However, if the vehicle’s brake lights are not in working order or are not clearly visible, or the vehicle is not fitted with brake lights, the driver must give the stop signal by giving a hand signal in accordance with rule 55, or using a mechanical signalling device fitted to the vehicle.
Note—
Mechanical signalling device is defined in the dictionary.
55   How to give a stop signal by giving a hand signal
(1)  To give a hand signal for stopping or suddenly slowing, the driver must extend the right arm and hand at right angles from the right side of the vehicle, with the upper arm horizontal and the forearm and hand pointing upwards, and with the hand open and the palm facing the direction of travel.
(2)  However, the rider of a motor bike may give the hand signal by extending the left arm and hand at right angles from the left side of the motor bike, with the upper arm horizontal and the forearm and hand pointing upwards, and with the hand open and the palm facing the direction of travel.
Note—
Motor bike is defined in the dictionary.
Example—
Giving a hand signal for stopping or suddenly slowing
Part 6 Traffic lights and twin red lights
Division 1 Obeying traffic lights
Note 1—
Traffic arrows and traffic lights are defined in the dictionary. Traffic arrows are a traffic control device installed with traffic lights that are designed to show a traffic arrow, or 2 or more traffic arrows at different times—see the definition in the dictionary.
Note 2—
A reference in a rule of this Part to a green, yellow or red traffic light or traffic arrow is a reference to a steady green, yellow or red traffic light or traffic arrow, unless otherwise stated in the rule—see rule 323.
Note 3—
The rules dealing with T lights and B lights, which apply to drivers of trams and public buses, are in Part 17.
56   Stopping for a red traffic light or arrow
(1)  A driver approaching or at traffic lights showing a red traffic light must stop:
(a)  if there is a stop line at or near the traffic lights—as near as practicable to, but before reaching, the stop line, or
(b)  if there is a stop here on red signal sign at or near the traffic lights, but no stop line—as near as practicable to, but before reaching, the sign, or
(c)  if there is no stop line or stop here on red signal sign at or near the traffic lights—as near as practicable to, but before reaching, the nearest or only traffic lights.
Offence provision.
Note—
Red traffic light and stop line are defined in the dictionary.
Example for subrule (1) (b)—
Stopping at a stop here on red signal sign on a road the driver is entering
In this example, the driver may go straight ahead, or turn right or left, if there is a green traffic light showing at 1. However, the driver must not go beyond the stop line or stop here on red signal sign at 2, if there is a red traffic light showing on the road the driver is entering (see 3).
(2)  A driver approaching or at traffic arrows showing a red traffic arrow who is turning in the direction indicated by the arrow must stop:
(a)  if there is a stop line at or near the traffic arrows—as near as practicable to, but before reaching, the stop line, or
(b)  if there is a stop here on red arrow sign at or near the traffic arrows, but no stop line—as near as practicable to, but before reaching, the sign, or
(c)  if there is no stop line or stop here on red arrow sign at or near the traffic arrows—as near as practicable to, but before reaching, the nearest or only traffic arrows.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Red traffic arrow is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
This rule only applies to a driver turning left using a slip lane if the red traffic light or red traffic arrow applies to the slip lane—see Part 20, Divisions 2 and 3, especially rules 330 and 345.
Note 3—
Rule 58 deals with when a driver does not have to stop for a red traffic light.
Note 4—
The driver of a tram or a public bus does not have to stop at traffic lights showing a red traffic light if a white T light (for trams) or a white B light (for public buses) is also showing, or a white traffic arrow is showing and the driver is turning in the direction indicated by the arrow—see rules 278 and 285.
Stop here on red signal sign
Stop here on red arrow sign
Note for diagrams—
There is another permitted version of the stop here on red signal sign—see the diagram in Schedule 3.
57   Stopping for a yellow traffic light or arrow
(1)  This rule applies to:
(a)  a driver approaching or at traffic lights showing a yellow traffic light, or
(b)  a driver approaching or at traffic arrows showing a yellow traffic arrow who is turning in the direction indicated by the arrow.
Note—
Yellow traffic arrow and yellow traffic light are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  The driver must stop:
(a)  if there is a stop line at or near the traffic lights or arrows and the driver can stop safely before reaching the stop line—as near as practicable to, but before reaching, the stop line, or
(b)  if there is no stop line at or near the traffic lights or arrows and the driver can stop safely before reaching the traffic lights or arrows—as near as practicable to, but before reaching, the nearest or only traffic lights or arrows, or
(c)  if the traffic lights or arrows are at an intersection and the driver cannot stop safely in accordance with paragraph (a) or (b), but can stop safely before entering the intersection—before entering the intersection.
Offence provision.
Note—
Enter, intersection and stop line are defined in the dictionary.
(3)  If the traffic lights or arrows are at an intersection and the driver is not able to stop safely under subrule (2) and enters the intersection, the driver must leave the intersection as soon as the driver can do so safely.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Intersection does not include a road-related area—see the definition in the dictionary.
Note 2—
This rule only applies to a driver turning left using a slip lane if the yellow traffic light or yellow traffic arrow applies to the slip lane—see Part 20, Divisions 2 and 3, especially rules 330 and 345.
Note 3—
Rule 58 deals with when a driver does not have to stop at a yellow traffic light.
58   Exceptions to stopping for a red or yellow traffic light
(1)  A driver approaching or at traffic lights showing a red or yellow traffic light does not have to stop if a green traffic arrow is also showing and the driver is turning in the direction indicated by the arrow.
Note—
Green traffic arrow, red traffic light and yellow traffic light are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  A driver turning at an intersection with traffic lights who approaches or is at a red traffic light on the road that the driver is entering does not have to stop for that traffic light if there is no stop line or stop here on red signal sign at or near the traffic light.
Note—
Intersection and stop line are defined in the dictionary.
59   Proceeding through a red traffic light
(1)  If traffic lights at an intersection are showing a red traffic light, a driver must not enter the intersection.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Enter, intersection and red traffic light are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rules 56 and 57 deal with stopping for a red or yellow traffic light. Rule 60 deals with proceeding through a red traffic arrow.
(2)  However, if the traffic lights are at an intersection with a left turn on red after stopping sign and the driver is turning left at the intersection, the driver may turn left after stopping.
Note—
Rule 62 deals with the give way rules applying to a driver turning left at an intersection after stopping at a left turn on red after stopping sign.
(3)  Also, subrule (1) does not apply to a driver if subrule 58 (1) applies to the driver.
Note—
Rule 58 deals with when a driver does not have to stop for a red traffic light.
Left turn on red after stopping sign
60   Proceeding through a red traffic arrow
If traffic arrows at an intersection are showing a red traffic arrow, and a driver is turning in the direction indicated by the arrow, the driver must not enter the intersection.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Enter, intersection and red traffic arrow are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rules 56 and 57 deal with stopping for a red or yellow traffic arrow.
61   Proceeding when traffic lights or arrows at an intersection change to yellow or red
(1)  This rule applies to:
(a)  a driver at an intersection with traffic lights showing a green traffic light who has stopped after the stop line, stop here on red signal sign, or nearest or only traffic lights, at the intersection and is not making a hook turn at the intersection, or
(b)  a driver at an intersection with traffic arrows showing a green traffic arrow who is turning in the direction indicated by the arrow and has stopped after the stop line, stop here on red arrow sign, or nearest or only traffic arrows, at the intersection.
Example—
A driver may stop after the stop line at an intersection with traffic lights showing a green traffic light, and not proceed through the intersection, because traffic is congested.
Note 1—
Green traffic arrow, green traffic light, intersection and stop line are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Hook turns are dealt with in rules 34 and 35.
(2)  If the traffic lights or arrows change to yellow or red while the driver is stopped and the driver has not entered the intersection, the driver must not enter the intersection.
Offence provision.
Note—
Enter is defined in the dictionary.
(3)  However, if the traffic lights are at an intersection with a left turn on red after stopping sign and the driver is turning left at the intersection, the driver may turn left after stopping.
Note—
Rule 62 deals with the give way rules applying to a driver turning left at an intersection after stopping at a left turn on red after stopping sign.
(4)  Also, subrule (2) does not apply to a driver if subrule 58 (1) applies to the driver.
Note—
Rule 58 deals with when a driver does not have to stop for a red traffic light.
(5)  If the traffic lights or arrows change to yellow or red while the driver is stopped and the driver has entered the intersection, the driver must leave the intersection as soon as the driver can do so safely.
Offence provision.
Note—
Intersection does not include a road-related area—see the definition in the dictionary.
Division 2 Giving way at traffic lights
Note—
Traffic lights are defined in the dictionary.
62   Giving way when turning at an intersection with traffic lights
A driver turning at an intersection with traffic lights must give way to:
(a)  any pedestrian at or near the intersection who is on the road the driver is entering, and
(b)  if the driver is turning left at a left turn on red after stopping sign at the intersection:
(i)  any vehicle approaching from the right, turning right at the intersection into the road the driver is entering or making a U-turn, and
(ii)  any pedestrian at or near the intersection who is on the road the driver is leaving, and
(c)  if the driver is turning right—any oncoming vehicle that is going straight ahead or turning left at the intersection (except a vehicle turning left using a slip lane).
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Intersection, oncoming vehicle, slip lane, straight ahead and U-turn are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
For this rule, give way means the driver must remain stationary until it is safe to proceed—see the definition in the dictionary.
Note 3—
Rule 322 (3) and (4) deal with the meaning of a traffic sign at an intersection.
Note 4—
A driver turning left at a left turn on red after stopping sign, at an intersection with traffic lights showing a red traffic light, must stop in accordance with rule 56 (1) before making the turn.
Examples—
Example 1Giving way to a pedestrian on the road the driver is entering
Example 2Driver turning right giving way to an oncoming vehicle going straight ahead
Example 3Driver turning right does not have to give way to an oncoming vehicle that is turning left into the road the driver is entering using a slip lane
In example 1, the vehicle must give way to the pedestrian.
In examples 2 and 3, vehicle B must give way to vehicle A.
63   Giving way at an intersection with traffic lights not operating or only partly operating
(1)  This rule applies to a driver at an intersection if traffic lights at the intersection are not operating, or the traffic lights are showing only a flashing yellow traffic light.
Note—
Intersection and yellow traffic light are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  If there is a traffic light-stop sign at the intersection, the driver must comply with rule 67 as if the sign were a stop sign at an intersection without traffic lights.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Rule 322 (3) and (4) deal with the meaning of a traffic sign at an intersection.
Note 2—
Rule 67 deals with stopping and giving way at a stop sign or stop line at an intersection without traffic lights.
Note 3—
There is no requirement under Division 1 of this Part for a driver to stop for a flashing yellow traffic light or traffic lights that are not operating.
(3)  If there is no traffic light-stop sign at the intersection, the driver must give way to vehicles and pedestrians at or near the intersection in accordance with rule 72 or 73 as if the intersection were an intersection without traffic lights, or a stop sign, stop line, give way sign or give way line.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Give way line and stop line are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rules 72 and 73 deal with giving way at an intersection (except a roundabout) without traffic lights, or a stop sign, stop line, give way sign or give way line applying to the driver.
Traffic light-stop sign
64   Giving way at a flashing yellow traffic arrow at an intersection
A driver turning in the direction indicated by a flashing yellow traffic arrow at an intersection with traffic lights must give way to:
(a)  any vehicle travelling on the road the driver is entering, and
(b)  any pedestrian at or near the intersection who is on the road the driver is entering, and
(c)  if the driver is turning right—any oncoming vehicle that is going straight ahead or turning left at the intersection (except a vehicle turning left using a slip lane).
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Intersection, oncoming vehicle, slip lane, straight ahead and yellow traffic arrow are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
For this rule, give way means the driver must slow down and, if necessary, stop to avoid a collision—see the definition in the dictionary.
Note 3—
There is no requirement under Division 1 of this Part for a driver to stop for a flashing yellow traffic arrow.
65   Giving way at a marked foot crossing (except at an intersection) with a flashing yellow traffic light
(1)  This rule applies to a driver approaching or at a marked foot crossing (except at or near an intersection) with a flashing yellow traffic light at the crossing.
Note—
Intersection, marked foot crossing and yellow traffic light are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  The driver must:
(a)  give way to any pedestrian on the crossing, and
(b)  not obstruct any pedestrian on the crossing, and
(c)  not overtake or pass a vehicle that is travelling in the same direction as the driver and is stopping, or has stopped, to give way at the crossing.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Overtake is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
For subrule (2), give way means the driver must slow down and, if necessary, stop to avoid a collision—see the definition in the dictionary.
(3)  If there is no pedestrian on the crossing, and no other vehicle travelling in the same direction as the driver that is stopping, or has stopped, to give way at the crossing, the driver may proceed through the crossing.
Division 3 Twin red lights (except at level crossings)
66   Stopping for twin red lights (except at level crossings)
(1)  A driver approaching or at twin red lights on a road (except at a level crossing) must stop in accordance with subrules (2) and (3).
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Level crossing is defined in rule 120, and twin red lights is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 322 (1) and (2) deal with the meaning of a traffic control device on a road.
Note 3—
Twin red lights are generally erected at bridges, ambulance stations, fire stations or level crossings. The rules about stopping at level crossings are in Part 10.
(2)  If there is a stop line at or near the lights and the driver can stop safely before reaching the stop line, the driver must stop as near as practicable to, but before reaching, the stop line.
Note—
Stop line is defined in the dictionary.
(3)  If there is no stop line at or near the lights and the driver can stop safely before reaching the lights, the driver must stop as near as practicable to, but before reaching, the lights.
(4)  If the driver stops for the lights, the driver must not proceed until the lights are not showing.
Offence provision.
Part 7 Giving way
Note 1—
The rules in this Part deal with giving way in most situations. In addition, other rules requiring a driver to give way include:
  making a U-turn—rule 38
  turning at traffic lights at an intersection—rule 62
  at an intersection with traffic lights that are not operating or only partly operating—rule 63
  turning at a flashing yellow traffic arrow at an intersection—rule 64
  at a marked foot crossing with a flashing yellow traffic light—rule 65
  entering and driving in a roundabout—rule 114
  by the rider of a bicycle or animal to a vehicle leaving a roundabout—rule 119
  at a stop sign at a level crossing—rule 121
  at a give way sign or give way line at a level crossing—rule 122
  moving from one marked lane to another marked lane, or from one line of traffic to another line of traffic—rule 148
  when lines of traffic merge into a single line of traffic—rule 149
  for pedestrians crossing the road near a stopped tram—rule 164.
Note 2—
For the meaning of left and right, see rule 351 (1) and (2).
Division 1 Giving way at a stop sign, stop line, give way sign or give way line applying to the driver
Note—
For a driver, a reference in a rule in this Division to a traffic sign or road marking is a reference to a traffic sign or road marking applying to the driver—see rules 338 to 341.
67   Stopping and giving way at a stop sign or stop line at an intersection without traffic lights
(1)  A driver at an intersection with a stop sign or stop line, but without traffic lights, must stop and give way in accordance with this rule.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Intersection and stop line are defined in the dictionary. This rule applies also to T-intersections—see the definition of intersection.
Note 2—
For this rule, give way means the driver must remain stationary until it is safe for the driver to proceed—see the definition in the dictionary.
Note 3—
Part 6 deals with stopping and giving way at an intersection with traffic lights.
Note 4—
This rule only applies to a driver turning left using a slip lane if the stop sign or stop line applies to the slip lane—see Part 20, Divisions 2 and 3, especially rules 330 and 345.
(2)  The driver must stop at the stop line or, if there is no stop line, the driver must stop as near as practicable to, but before entering, the intersection.
Note—
Enter is defined in the dictionary.
(3)  The driver must give way to a vehicle in, entering or approaching the intersection except:
(a)  an oncoming vehicle turning right at the intersection if a stop sign, stop line, give way sign or give way line applies to the driver of the oncoming vehicle, or
(b)  a vehicle turning left at the intersection using a slip lane, or
(c)  a vehicle making a U-turn.
Note—
Give way line, oncoming vehicle, slip lane and U-turn are defined in the dictionary.
(4)  If the driver is turning left or right or making a U-turn, the driver must also give way to any pedestrian at or near the intersection on the road, or part of the road, the driver is entering.
(5)  For this rule, an oncoming vehicle travelling through a T-intersection on the continuing road is taken not to be turning.
Stop sign
Examples—
Example 1Stop line
Example 2Stopping and giving way at a stop sign to vehicles on the left and right
In example 2, vehicle B must stop and give way to each vehicle A.
Example 3Stopping and giving way at a stop sign to an oncoming vehicle at a stop sign
Example 4Stopping and giving way at a stop sign to an oncoming vehicle that is not at a stop sign or give way sign
In examples 3 and 4, vehicle B must stop and give way to vehicle A.
68   Stopping and giving way at a stop sign or stop line at other places
(1)  A driver approaching or at a place (except an intersection, children’s crossing, level crossing, or a place with twin red lights) with a stop sign or stop line must stop and give way in accordance with this rule.
Offence provision.
Examples—
1   
A stop sign at a break in a dividing strip dividing the part of the road used by the main body of moving vehicles from a service road.
2   
A stop sign on an exit from a carpark where the exit joins the road.
Note 1—
Children’s crossing is defined in rule 80, intersection, stop line and twin red lights are defined in the dictionary, and level crossing is defined in rule 120.
Note 2—
For this rule, give way means the driver must remain stationary until it is safe for the driver to proceed—see the definition in the dictionary.
Note 3—
For the stopping and giving way rules applying to a driver at an intersection or level crossing with a stop sign or stop line, see rule 67 (intersections) and rule 121 (level crossings). Rule 80 deals with stopping at a stop line at a children’s crossing.
(2)  The driver must stop at the stop line or, if there is no stop line, the driver must stop as near as practicable to, but before, the stop sign.
(3)  The driver must give way to any vehicle or pedestrian at or near the stop sign.
Examples—
Example 1Stopping and giving way at a stop sign at a break in a dividing strip
Example 2Stopping and giving way at a stop sign where a carpark exit joins a road
In each example, vehicle B must stop and give way to vehicle A.
69   Giving way at a give way sign or give way line at an intersection
(1)  A driver at an intersection with a give way sign or give way line must give way in accordance with this rule.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Give way line and intersection are defined in the dictionary. This rule applies also to T-intersections—see the definition of intersection.
Note 2—
For this rule, give way means the driver must slow down and, if necessary, stop to avoid a collision—see the definition in the dictionary.
(2)  The driver must give way to a vehicle in, entering or approaching the intersection except:
(a)  an oncoming vehicle turning right at the intersection if a stop sign, stop line, give way sign or give way line applies to the driver of the oncoming vehicle, or
(b)  a vehicle turning left at the intersection using a slip lane, or
(c)  a vehicle making a U-turn.
Note—
Enter, oncoming vehicle, slip lane, stop line and U-turn are defined in the dictionary.
(3)  If the driver is turning left or right or making a U-turn, the driver must also give way to any pedestrian at or near the intersection on the road, or part of the road, the driver is entering.
(4)  For this rule, an oncoming vehicle travelling through a T-intersection on the continuing road is taken not to be turning.
Give way sign
Examples—
Example 1Give way line
Example 2Giving way at a give way sign to vehicles on the left and right
In example 2, vehicle B must give way to each vehicle A.
Example 3Giving way at a give way sign to an oncoming vehicle at a give way sign
Example 4Giving way at a give way sign to an oncoming vehicle that is not at a stop sign or give way sign
In examples 3 and 4, vehicle B must give way to vehicle A.
Example 5Driver turning right at a give way line does not have to give way to a vehicle turning left using a slip lane
In example 5, vehicle B must give way to vehicle A.
70   Giving way at a give way sign at a bridge or length of narrow road
A driver approaching a bridge or length of narrow road with a give way sign must give way to any oncoming vehicle that is on the bridge or length of road when the driver reaches the sign.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Oncoming vehicle is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
For this rule, give way means the driver must slow down and, if necessary, stop to avoid a collision—see the definition in the dictionary.
Examples—
Example 1Giving way at a bridge
Example 2Giving way at a length of narrow road
In each example, vehicle B must give way to vehicle A.
71   Giving way at a give way sign or give way line at other places
(1)  A driver approaching or at a place (except an intersection, bridge or length of narrow road, level crossing, or a place with twin red lights) with a give way sign or give way line must give way in accordance with this rule.
Offence provision.
Examples—
1   
A give way sign at a break in a dividing strip dividing the part of the road used by the main body of moving vehicles from a service road.
2   
A give way sign on a road at a place where a bicycle path meets the road.
Note 1—
Give way line, intersection and twin red lights are defined in the dictionary, and level crossing is defined in rule 120.
Note 2—
For this rule, give way means the driver must slow down and, if necessary, stop to avoid a collision—see the definition in the dictionary.
Note 3—
For the give way rules applying to a driver at an intersection, bridge or length of narrow road, or level crossing, with a give way sign or give way line, see rule 69 (intersections), rule 70 (bridges and lengths of narrow road) and rule 122 (level crossings).
(2)  The driver must give way to any vehicle or pedestrian at or near the give way sign or give way line.
Examples—
Example 1Giving way at a give way sign at a break in a dividing strip
Example 2Giving way at a give way sign where a bicycle path meets a road
In example 1, vehicle B must give way to vehicle A.
In example 2, the motor vehicle must give way to the bicycle.
Division 2 Giving way at an intersection without traffic lights or a stop sign, stop line, give way sign or give way line applying to the driver
Note—
For a driver, a reference in a rule in this Division to a traffic sign or road marking is a reference to a traffic sign or road marking applying to the driver—see rules 338 to 341.
72   Giving way at an intersection (except a T-intersection or roundabout)
(1)  A driver at an intersection (except a T-intersection or roundabout) without traffic lights or a stop sign, stop line, give way sign or give way line, must give way in accordance with this rule.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Give way line, intersection, stop line, T-intersection and traffic lights are defined in the dictionary, and roundabout is defined in rule 109.
Note 2—
For this rule, give way means the driver must slow down and, if necessary, stop to avoid a collision—see the definition in the dictionary.
(2)  If the driver is going straight ahead, the driver must give way to any vehicle approaching from the right, unless a stop sign, stop line, give way sign or give way line applies to the driver of the approaching vehicle.
Examples—
Example 1Driver going straight ahead giving way to a vehicle on the right that is going straight ahead
Example 2Driver going straight ahead giving way to a vehicle on the right that is turning right
In each example, vehicle B must give way to vehicle A.
Note—
Straight ahead is defined in the dictionary.
(3)  If the driver is turning left (except if the driver is using a slip lane), the driver must give way to:
(a)  any vehicle approaching from the right, unless a stop sign, stop line, give way sign or give way line applies to the driver of the approaching vehicle, and
(b)  any pedestrian at or near the intersection on the road the driver is entering.
Examples—
Example 3Driver turning left giving way to a vehicle on the right that is going straight ahead
Example 4Driver turning left giving way to a pedestrian on the road the driver is entering
In example 3, vehicle B must give way to vehicle A.
In example 4, the vehicle must give way to the pedestrian.
Note—
Slip lane is defined in the dictionary.
(4)  If the driver is turning left using a slip lane, the driver must give way to:
(a)  any vehicle approaching from the right or turning right at the intersection into the road the driver is entering (except a vehicle making a U-turn at the intersection), and
(b)  any pedestrian on the slip lane.
Example—
Example 5Driver turning left using a slip lane giving way to a vehicle that is turning right into the road the driver is entering
In this example, vehicle B must give way to vehicle A.
(5)  If the driver is turning right, the driver must give way to:
(a)  any vehicle approaching from the right, unless a stop sign, stop line, give way sign or give way line applies to the driver of the approaching vehicle, and
(b)  any oncoming vehicle that is going straight ahead or turning left at the intersection, unless:
(i)  a stop sign, stop line, give way sign or give way line applies to the driver of the oncoming vehicle, or
(ii)  the oncoming vehicle is turning left using a slip lane, and
(c)  any pedestrian at or near the intersection on the road the driver is entering.
Note—
Oncoming vehicle is defined in the dictionary.
Examples—
Example 6Driver turning right giving way to a vehicle on the right that is turning right into the road the driver is leaving
Example 7Driver turning right giving way to an oncoming vehicle that is going straight ahead on the road the driver is leaving
In examples 6 and 7, vehicle B must give way to vehicle A.
Example 8Driver turning right giving way to an oncoming vehicle that is turning left into the road the driver is entering
Example 9Driver turning right giving way to a pedestrian on the road the driver is entering
In example 8, vehicle B must give way to vehicle A.
In example 9, the vehicle must give way to the pedestrian.
73   Giving way at a T-intersection
(1)  A driver at a T-intersection without traffic lights or a stop sign, stop line, give way sign or give way line, must give way in accordance with this rule.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Give way line, stop line, T-intersection and traffic lights are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
For this rule, give way means the driver must slow down and, if necessary, stop to avoid a collision—see the definition in the dictionary.
Note 3—
Rule 75 (1) (d) requires a driver at a T-intersection to give way when crossing the continuing road to enter a road-related area or adjacent land.
(2)  If the driver is turning left (except if the driver is using a slip lane) or right from the terminating road into the continuing road, the driver must give way to:
(a)  any vehicle travelling on the continuing road, and
(b)  any pedestrian on the continuing road at or near the intersection.
Note—
Continuing road, slip lane and terminating road are defined in the dictionary.
Examples—
Example 1Driver turning right from the terminating road giving way to a vehicle on the continuing road
Example 2Driver turning left (except if the driver is using a slip lane) from the terminating road giving way to a pedestrian on the continuing road
In example 1, vehicle B must give way to vehicle A.
In example 2, the vehicle must give way to the pedestrian.
(3)  If the driver is turning left from the terminating road into the continuing road using a slip lane, the driver must give way to:
(a)  any vehicle travelling on the continuing road, and
(b)  any pedestrian on the slip lane.
(4)  If the driver is turning left (except if the driver is using a slip lane) from the continuing road into the terminating road, the driver must give way to any pedestrian on the terminating road at or near the intersection.
Example—
Example 3Driver turning left (except if the driver is using a slip lane) from the continuing road giving way to a pedestrian on the terminating road
In this example, the vehicle must give way to the pedestrian.
(5)  If the driver is turning from the continuing road into the terminating road using a slip lane, the driver must give way to:
(a)  any vehicle approaching from the right, and
(b)  any pedestrian on the slip lane.
(6)  If the driver is turning right from the continuing road into the terminating road, the driver must give way to:
(a)  any oncoming vehicle that is travelling through the intersection on the continuing road or turning left at the intersection, and
(b)  any pedestrian on the terminating road at or near the intersection.
Note—
Oncoming vehicle is defined in the dictionary.
(7)  In this rule:
turning left from the continuing road into the terminating road, for a driver, includes, where the continuing road curves to the right at a T-intersection, leaving the continuing road to proceed straight ahead onto the terminating road.
turning right from the continuing road into the terminating road, for a driver, includes, where the continuing road curves to the left at a T-intersection, leaving the continuing road to proceed straight ahead onto the terminating road.
Note—
Straight ahead is defined in the dictionary.
Examples—
Example 4Driver turning right from the continuing road giving way to an oncoming vehicle travelling through the intersection on the continuing road
Example 5Driver leaving the continuing road to proceed straight ahead on the terminating road giving way to a vehicle travelling through the intersection on the continuing road
Example 5 shows a T-intersection where the continuing road (which is marked with broken white lines) goes around a corner. Vehicle B is leaving the continuing road to enter the terminating road. In examples 4 and 5, vehicle B must give way to vehicle A.
Example 6Driver turning right from the continuing road giving way to an oncoming vehicle turning left from the continuing road
Example 7Driver turning right from the continuing road giving way to a pedestrian on the terminating road
In example 6, vehicle B must give way to vehicle A.
In example 7, the vehicle must give way to the pedestrian.
Division 3 Entering or leaving road-related areas and adjacent land
74   Giving way when entering a road from a road-related area or adjacent land
(1)  A driver entering a road from a road-related area, or adjacent land, without traffic lights or a stop sign, stop line, give way sign or give way line must give way to:
(a)  any vehicle travelling on the road or turning into the road (except a vehicle turning right into the road from a road-related area or adjacent land), and
(b)  any pedestrian on the road, and
(c)  any vehicle or pedestrian on any road-related area that the driver crosses to enter the road, and
(d)  for a driver entering the road from a road-related area—any pedestrian on the road-related area.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Adjacent land, give way line, stop line and traffic lights are defined in the dictionary, and road-related area is defined in rule 13.
Note 2—
Adjacent land or a road-related area can include a driveway, service station or shopping centre—see the definitions of adjacent land and road-related area. Some shopping centres may include roads—see the definition of road in rule 12.
Note 3—
Part 6 applies to the driver if there are traffic lights. Rule 68 applies to the driver if there is a stop sign or stop line, and rule 71 applies to the driver if there is a give way sign or give way line.
Note 4—
For this rule, give way means the driver must slow down and, if necessary, stop to avoid a collision—see the definition in the dictionary.
(2)  In this rule:
road does not include a road-related area.
Note—
A road-related area includes any shoulder of a road—see rule 13.
Example—
Driver entering a road from a road-related area giving way to a pedestrian on the footpath and a vehicle on the road
In this example, vehicle B must give way to the pedestrian on the footpath and to vehicle A.
75   Giving way when entering a road-related area or adjacent land from a road
(1)  A driver entering a road-related area or adjacent land from a place on a road without traffic lights or a stop sign, stop line, give way sign or give way line must give way to:
(a)  any pedestrian on the road, and
(b)  any vehicle or pedestrian on any road-related area that the driver crosses or enters, and
(c)  if the driver is turning right from the road—any oncoming vehicle on the road that is going straight ahead or turning left, and
(d)  if the road the driver is leaving ends at a T-intersection opposite the road-related area or adjacent land and the driver is crossing the continuing road—any vehicle on the continuing road.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Adjacent land, continuing road, give way line, oncoming vehicle, stop line, straight ahead, T-intersection and traffic lights are defined in the dictionary, and road-related area is defined in rule 13.
Note 2—
Adjacent land or a road-related area can include a driveway, service station or shopping centre—see the definitions of adjacent land and road-related area. Some shopping centres may include roads—see the definition of road in rule 12.
Note 3—
For this rule, give way means the driver must slow down and, if necessary, stop to avoid a collision—see the definition in the dictionary.
Note 4—
Part 6 applies to the driver if there are traffic lights. Rule 68 applies to the driver if there is a stop sign or stop line, and rule 71 applies to the driver if there is a give way sign or give way line.
(2)  In this rule:
road does not include a road-related area.
Note—
A road-related area includes any shoulder of a road—see rule 13.
Examples—
Example 1Driver turning right from a road into a road-related area giving way to an oncoming vehicle that is going straight ahead and to a pedestrian on the footpath
Example 2Driver crossing a continuing road at a T-intersection to enter a road-related area giving way to a vehicle on the continuing road
In each example, vehicle B must give way to vehicle A. In example 1, vehicle B must also give way to the pedestrian on the footpath.
Division 4 Keeping clear of and giving way to particular vehicles
76   Keeping clear of trams travelling in tram lanes etc
(1)  A driver must not move into the path of an approaching tram travelling in a tram lane, or on tram tracks marked along the left side of the tracks by a broken or continuous yellow line parallel to the tracks.
Offence provision.
Note—
Approaching, left, tram and tram tracks are defined in the dictionary, and tram lane is defined in rule 155.
(2)  If a driver is in the path of an approaching tram travelling in a tram lane, or on tram tracks marked along the left side of the tracks by a broken or continuous yellow line parallel to the tracks, the driver must move out of the path of the tram as soon as the driver can do so safely.
Offence provision.
(3)  In this rule:
tram includes a bus travelling along tram tracks.
Note—
Bus and travelling along tram tracks are defined in the dictionary.
77   Giving way to buses
(1)  A driver driving on a length of road in a built-up area, in the left lane or left line of traffic, must give way to a bus in front of the driver if:
(a)  the bus has stopped, or is moving slowly, at the far left side of the road, on a shoulder of the road, or in a bus-stop bay, and
(b)  the bus displays a give way to buses sign and the right direction indicator lights of the bus are operating, and
(c)  the bus is about to enter or proceed in the lane or line of traffic in which the driver is driving.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Built-up area, bus and length of road are defined in the dictionary, left lane and left line of traffic are defined in subrule (2), and shoulder is defined in rule 12.
Note 2—
For this rule, give way means the driver must slow down and, if necessary, stop to avoid a collision—see the definition in the dictionary.
Note 3—
The driver of the bus must give the change of direction signal for long enough to give sufficient warning to other drivers and pedestrians—see rule 48 (2) and (3).
Note 4—
Under rule 87 (1), a driver entering a marked lane, or a line of traffic, from the side of the road must give way to any vehicle travelling in the lane or line of traffic. However, the driver of a public bus does not have to give way to a vehicle if the vehicle is required to give way to the bus under this rule and it is safe for the bus to enter the lane, or line of traffic, in which the other vehicle is travelling—see rule 87 (2).
(2)  In this rule:
left lane, of a road, means:
(a)  the marked lane nearest to the far left side of the road (the first lane) or, if the first lane is a bicycle lane, the marked lane next to the first lane, or
(b)  if there is an obstruction in the first lane (for example, a parked car or roadworks) and the first lane is not a bicycle lane—the marked lane next to the first lane.
left line of traffic, for a road, means the line of traffic nearest to the far left side of the road.
Note—
Marked lane and obstruction are defined in the dictionary, and bicycle lane is defined in rule 153.
Give way to buses sign
Note for diagram—
This sign is displayed on buses.
78   Keeping clear of police and emergency vehicles
(1)  A driver must not move into the path of an approaching police or emergency vehicle that is displaying a flashing blue or red light (whether or not it is also displaying other lights) or sounding an alarm.
Offence provision.
Note—
Approaching, emergency vehicle and police vehicle are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  If a driver is in the path of an approaching police or emergency vehicle that is displaying a flashing blue or red light (whether or not it is also displaying other lights) or sounding an alarm, the driver must move out of the path of the vehicle as soon as the driver can do so safely.
Offence provision.
(3)  This rule applies to the driver despite any other rule of the Australian Road Rules.
79   Giving way to police and emergency vehicles
(1)  A driver must give way to a police or emergency vehicle that is displaying a flashing blue or red light (whether or not it is also displaying other lights) or sounding an alarm.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Emergency vehicle and police vehicle are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
For this rule, give way means:
(a)  if the driver is stopped—remain stationary until it is safe to proceed, or
(b)  in any other case—slow down and, if necessary, stop to avoid a collision,
—see the definition in the dictionary.
(2)  This rule applies to the driver despite any other rule that would otherwise require the driver of a police or emergency vehicle to give way to the driver.
Division 5 Crossings and shared zones
80   Stopping at a children’s crossing
(1)  A driver approaching a children’s crossing must drive at a speed at which the driver can, if necessary, stop safely before the crossing.
Offence provision.
Note—
Children’s crossing is defined in subrule (6).
(2)  A driver approaching or at a children’s crossing must stop at the stop line at the crossing if:
(a)  a hand-held stop sign is displayed at the crossing, or
(b)  a pedestrian is on or entering the crossing.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Stop line is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 322 (3) and (4) deal with the meaning of a traffic control device at a place.
(3)  If a driver stops at a children’s crossing for a hand-held stop sign, the driver must not proceed until the holder of the sign:
(a)  no longer displays the sign towards the driver, or
(b)  otherwise indicates that the driver may proceed.
Offence provision.
(4)  If a driver stops at a children’s crossing for a pedestrian, the driver must not proceed until there is no pedestrian on or entering the crossing.
Offence provision.
(5)  For this rule, if a children’s crossing extends across a road with a dividing strip, the part of the children’s crossing on each side of the dividing strip is taken to be a separate children’s crossing.
Note—
Dividing strip is defined in the dictionary.
(6)  A children’s crossing is an area of a road:
(a)  at a place with stop lines marked on the road, and:
(i)  children crossing flags, or
(ii)  children’s crossing signs and twin yellow lights, and
(b)  indicated by:
(i)  2 red and white posts erected on each side of the road, or
(ii)  2 parallel continuous or broken lines on the road surface from one side of the road completely or partly across the road, and
(c)  extending across the road between the posts or lines.
Note—
Twin yellow lights is defined in the dictionary.
Children crossing flag
Children’s crossing sign
Hand-held stop signs
Note 1 for diagrams—
There is another permitted version of the children’s crossing sign and a number of other permitted versions of the hand-held stop signs—see the diagrams in Schedule 3.
Note 2 for diagrams—
A children’s crossing sign may have a different number on the sign—see rule 316 (4).
Examples—
Example 1Driver stopped at stop line for pedestrians on a children’s crossing with children crossing flags
Example 2Driver stopped at stop line for pedestrians on a children’s crossing with children’s crossing signs and twin yellow lights
In each of these examples, the driver must stop at the stop line because there are pedestrians on the children’s crossing.
81   Giving way at a pedestrian crossing
(1)  A driver approaching a pedestrian crossing must drive at a speed at which the driver can, if necessary, stop safely before the crossing.
Offence provision.
Note—
Pedestrian crossing is defined in subrule (3).
(2)  A driver must give way to any pedestrian on a pedestrian crossing.
Offence provision.
Note—
For this rule, give way means the driver must slow down and, if necessary, stop to avoid a collision—see the definition in the dictionary.
(3)  A pedestrian crossing is an area of a road:
(a)  at a place that has a pedestrian crossing sign (with or without alternating flashing twin yellow lights), and
(b)  indicated by white stripes on the road surface that are:
(i)  approximately parallel to each other, and
(ii)  from one side of the road completely or partly across the road.
Note 1—
Twin yellow lights is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 322 (3) and (4) deal with the meaning of a traffic sign at a place.
Pedestrian crossing sign
Examples—
Example 1Giving way to a pedestrian on a pedestrian crossing
Example 2Giving way to a pedestrian on a pedestrian crossing at a slip lane
In each of these examples, the driver must give way to the pedestrian on the crossing.
82   Overtaking or passing a vehicle at a children’s crossing or pedestrian crossing
A driver approaching a children’s crossing, or pedestrian crossing, must not overtake or pass a vehicle that is travelling in the same direction as the driver and is stopping, or has stopped, to give way to a pedestrian at the crossing.
Offence provision.
Note—
Children’s crossing is defined in rule 80, overtake is defined in the dictionary, and pedestrian crossing is defined in rule 81.
Example—
Driver not passing a vehicle that has stopped to give way to a pedestrian at a pedestrian crossing
In the example, vehicle A has stopped to give way to a pedestrian on the crossing. Vehicle B must not overtake or pass vehicle A.
83   Giving way to pedestrians in a shared zone
A driver driving in a shared zone must give way to any pedestrian in the zone.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Shared zone is defined in rule 24.
Note 2—
For this rule, give way means the driver must slow down and, if necessary, stop to avoid a collision—see the definition in the dictionary.
Division 6 Other give way rules
84   Giving way when driving through a break in a dividing strip
(1)  If a driver drives through a break in a dividing strip that has no stop sign, stop line, give way sign or give way line, the driver must give way to:
(a)  any tram on the dividing strip, and
(b)  any vehicle travelling on the part of the road the driver is entering (except a vehicle to which a stop sign, stop line, give way sign, or give way line, applies).
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Dividing strip, give way line, stop line and tram are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 68 applies to the driver if there is a stop sign or stop line, and rule 71 applies to the driver if there is a give way sign or give way line.
Note 3—
For this rule, give way means the driver must slow down and, if necessary, stop to avoid a collision—see the definition in the dictionary.
(2)  In this rule:
tram includes a bus travelling along tram tracks.
Note—
Bus and travelling along tram tracks are defined in the dictionary.
Examples—
Example 1Giving way when driving through a break in a median strip
Example 2Giving way when driving through a break in a dividing strip to leave a service road
Example 3Giving way when driving through a break in a dividing strip to enter a service road
In each of the examples, vehicle B must give way to vehicle A.
Note to examples—
A median strip is a particular kind of dividing strip—see the definition of median strip in the dictionary.
85   Giving way on a painted island
A driver entering a turning lane from a painted island must give way to any vehicle:
(a)  in the turning lane, or
(b)  entering the turning lane from the marked lane, or line of traffic, immediately to the left of the turning lane.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Marked lane, painted island and turning lane are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 138 deals with keeping off painted islands.
Note 3—
For this rule, give way means the driver must slow down and, if necessary, stop to avoid a collision—see the definition in the dictionary.
Example—
Driver entering a turning lane from a painted island giving way to a vehicle entering the turning lane from the marked lane immediately to the left of the turning lane
In the example, vehicle B must give way to vehicle A.
86   Giving way in median turning bays
(1)  A driver entering a median turning bay must give way to any oncoming vehicle already in the turning bay.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Oncoming vehicle is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
For this rule, give way means the driver must slow down and, if necessary, stop to avoid a collision—see the definition in the dictionary.
(2)  In this rule:
median turning bay means a marked lane, or the part of a marked lane:
(a)  to which a median turning lane sign applies, or
(b)  where traffic lane arrows applying to the lane indicate that vehicles travelling in opposite directions must turn right.
Note—
Marked lane and traffic lane arrows are defined in the dictionary.
Median turning lane sign
Note for diagram—
There is another permitted version of the median turning lane sign—see the diagram in Schedule 3.
Example—
Giving way in a median turning bay
In the example, vehicle B must give way to vehicle A.
87   Giving way when moving from a side or shoulder of the road or a median strip parking area
(1)  A driver entering a marked lane, or a line of traffic, from the far left or right side of a road, or from a shoulder of a road, must give way to any vehicle travelling in the lane or line of traffic.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Marked lane is defined in the dictionary, and shoulder is defined in rule 12.
Note 2—
For subrule (1), give way means:
(a)  if the driver is stopped—remain stationary until it is safe to proceed, or
(b)  in any other case—slow down and, if necessary, stop to avoid a collision,
—see the definition in the dictionary.
(2)  However, the driver of a public bus does not have to give way to a vehicle if:
(a)  the driver of the vehicle is required to give way to the bus under rule 77, and
(b)  it is safe for the bus to enter the lane or line of traffic in which the vehicle is driving.
Note 1—
Public bus is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
The bus must display a give way to buses sign and the right direction indicator lights of the bus must be operating—see rule 77.
(3)  A driver turning from a median strip parking area into a marked lane, or a line of traffic, must give way to any vehicle travelling in the lane or line of traffic.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Median strip parking area is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
For subrule (3), give way means the driver must slow down and, if necessary, stop to avoid a collision—see the definition in the dictionary.
Part 8 Traffic signs and road markings
Note 1—
The rules in this Part cover most traffic signs and road markings. However, some traffic signs and road markings are dealt with in other Parts dealing with particular subjects. These include:
  speed-limits (including speed-limits in speed-limited areas and shared zones)—see Part 3
  U-turns—see Part 4, Division 4
  traffic lights—see Part 6
  stop signs and give way signs—see Part 7, Division 1
  roundabouts—see Part 9
  level crossings—see Part 10
  keeping left and lane signs—see Part 11
  stopping and parking—see Part 12
  pedestrians—see Part 14
  bicycle riders—see Part 15.
Note 2—
Rule 322 deals with the meaning of traffic control devices on a road or in or at an area or place (including an intersection).
Note 3—
For a driver, a traffic sign or road marking mentioned in a rule is, unless the contrary intention appears, a sign or marking that applies to the driver. To find out how traffic signs and road markings apply to a driver, see rules 338 to 341.
Division 1 Traffic signs and road markings at intersections
Note—
Intersection, road marking and traffic sign are defined in the dictionary.
88   Left turn signs
(1)  If there is a left turn only sign at an intersection, a driver must turn left at the intersection.
Offence provision.
Note—
For the meaning of left, see rule 351 (1).
(2)  If there is a left lane must turn left sign at an intersection, a driver who is in the left marked lane when entering the intersection must turn left at the intersection.
Offence provision.
Note—
Marked lane is defined in the dictionary.
Left turn only sign
Left lane must turn left sign
Note for diagrams—
There is another permitted version of each of these signs—see the diagrams in Schedule 3.
89   Right turn signs
(1)  If there is a right turn only sign at an intersection, a driver must turn right at the intersection.
Offence provision.
Note—
For the meaning of right, see rule 351 (2).
(2)  If there is a right lane must turn right sign at an intersection, a driver who is in the right marked lane when entering the intersection must turn right at the intersection.
Offence provision.
Note—
Marked lane is defined in the dictionary.
(3)  In this rule:
turn right does not include make a U-turn.
Note—
U-turn is defined in the dictionary.
Right turn only sign
Right lane must turn right sign
Note for diagrams—
There are a number of other permitted versions of the right turn only sign, and another permitted version of the right lane must turn right sign—see the diagrams in Schedule 3.
90   No turns signs
If there is a no turns sign at an intersection, a driver must not turn left or right, or make a U-turn, at the intersection.
Offence provision.
Note—
U-turn is defined in the dictionary.
No turns sign
91   No left turn and no right turn signs
(1)  If there is a no left turn sign at an intersection, a driver must not turn left at the intersection.
Offence provision.
(2)  If there is a no right turn sign at an intersection, a driver must not turn right or make a U-turn at the intersection.
Offence provision.
No left turn signs
No left turn sign(Standard sign)
No left turn sign(Variable illuminated message sign)
No right turn signs
No right turn sign(Standard sign)
No right turn sign(Variable illuminated message sign)
Note for diagrams—
There is another permitted version of each of the no left turn signs and a number of other permitted versions of the no right turn signs—see the diagrams in Schedule 3.
92   Traffic lane arrows
(1)  If a driver is driving in a marked lane at an intersection (except a roundabout) and there are traffic lane arrows applying to the lane, the driver must:
(a)  if the arrows indicate a single direction—drive in that direction, or
(b)  if the arrows indicate 2 or more directions—drive in one of those directions.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Marked lane and traffic lane arrows are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Part 9 deals with traffic lane arrows at roundabouts.
Note 3—
Rule 329 explains when a traffic control device applies to a marked lane.
(2)  However, this rule does not apply to a driver if the arrows indicate a direction to the right (whether or not they also indicate another direction) and the driver is making a U-turn at the intersection.
Note—
Rules 40 and 41 deal with making a U-turn at an intersection. If there are traffic lights at the intersection, the driver may make a U-turn only if there is a U-turn permitted sign at the intersection. If there are no traffic lights at the intersection, the driver may make a U-turn unless there is a no U-turn sign at the intersection.
Examples—
Example 1Traffic lane arrows on the surface of marked lanes
Example 2Traffic lane arrows on a traffic sign
Division 2 Traffic signs and road markings generally
93   No overtaking or passing signs
(1)  A driver must not:
(a)  drive past a no overtaking or passing sign if any oncoming vehicle is on the bridge or length of road to which the sign applies, or
(b)  overtake a vehicle on a bridge or length of road to which a no overtaking or passing sign applies.
Offence provision.
Note—
Oncoming vehicle and overtake are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  A no overtaking or passing sign on a road applies to the length of road (including a length of road on a bridge) beginning at the sign and ending:
(a)  if information on or with the sign indicates a distance—at that distance past the sign, or
(b)  if the sign applies to a bridge—at the end of the bridge, or
(c)  at an end no overtaking or passing sign on the road.
Note—
With is defined in the dictionary.
No overtaking or passing sign
End no overtaking or passing sign
94   No overtaking on bridge signs
A driver on a bridge with a no overtaking on bridge sign must not overtake a vehicle between the sign and the far end of the bridge.
Offence provision.
Note—
Overtake is defined in the dictionary.
No overtaking on bridge sign
Note for diagram—
There is another permitted version of this sign—see the diagram in Schedule 3.
95   Emergency stopping lane only signs
(1)  A driver must not drive in an emergency stopping lane unless:
(a)  the driver needs to drive in the emergency stopping lane to avoid a collision, to stop in the lane, or because the driver’s vehicle is disabled, or
(b)  the driver is permitted to drive in the emergency stopping lane under another law of this jurisdiction.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Driver’s vehicle is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 178 deals with stopping in an emergency stopping lane.
(2)  This rule does not apply to the rider of a bicycle.
Note 1—
Bicycle is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
If a no bicycles sign applies to the emergency stopping lane, the rider must not ride in the lane—see rule 252.
(3)  In this rule:
emergency stopping lane means a marked lane, or the part of a marked lane, to which an emergency stopping lane only sign applies.
Note 1—
Marked lane is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 329 explains when a traffic control device applies to a marked lane.
Emergency stopping lane only sign
Note for diagram—
The sign may have an arrow pointing in a different direction—see rule 316 (4).
96   Keep clear markings
(1)  A driver must not stop on an area of a road marked with a keep clear marking.
Offence provision.
(2)  In this rule:
keep clear marking means the words “keep clear” marked across all or part of a road, with or without continuous lines marked across all or part of the road.
Examples—
Example 1Keep clear marking bounded by line road markings
Example 2Keep clear marking with no line road markings
97   Road access signs
(1)  A driver must not drive on a length of road to which a road access sign applies if information on or with the sign indicates that the driver or the driver’s vehicle is not permitted beyond the sign.
Offence provision.
Note—
Driver’s vehicle, length of road and with are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  A road access sign on a road applies to the length of road beginning at the sign (including any road into which the length of road merges) and ending:
(a)  if the sign is on a freeway—at an end freeway sign or end road access sign on the road, or
(b)  if the sign is not on a freeway—at the nearer of the following:
(i)  if the road ends at a T-intersection or dead end—the end of the road,
(ii)  an end road access sign on the road.
Example—
A road access sign on an access ramp to a freeway applies to the access ramp and the freeway into which the access ramp merges.
Note 1—
Freeway is defined in rule 177, and road marking, T-intersection and traffic sign are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 229 applies the road access sign to pedestrians.
Road access sign
End freeway sign
End road access sign
Note 1 for diagrams—
There are a number of other permitted versions of the road access sign and the end freeway sign—see the diagrams in Schedule 3.
Note 2 for diagrams—
A road access sign may indicate that it applies to different or additional vehicles or persons—see rule 316 (4).
98   One-way signs
(1)  A driver must not drive on a length of road to which a one-way sign applies except in the direction indicated by the arrow on the sign.
Offence provision.
Note—
Length of road is defined in the dictionary.
(2)  A one-way sign on a road applies to the length of road beginning at the sign and ending at the nearer of the following:
(a)  a two-way sign on the road,
(b)  a keep left sign on the road,
(c)  another sign or road marking on the road that indicates that the road is a two-way road,
(d)  if the road ends at a T-intersection—the end of the road.
Note 1—
Road marking, T-intersection and two-way road are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
There is a diagram of a keep left sign in rule 99.
One-way sign
Two-way sign
Note 1 for diagrams—
There are a number of other permitted versions of the one-way sign and another permitted version of the two-way sign—see the diagrams in Schedule 3.
Note 2 for diagrams—
A one-way sign may have an arrow pointing in a different direction—see rule 316 (4).
99   Keep left and keep right signs
(1)  A driver driving past a keep left sign must drive to the left of the sign.
Offence provision.
(2)  A driver driving past a keep right sign must drive to the right of the sign.
Offence provision.
Keep left sign
Keep right sign
Note for diagrams—
There is another permitted version of the keep right sign—see the diagram in Schedule 3.
100   No entry signs
A driver must not drive past a no entry sign.
Offence provision.
No entry sign
Note for diagram—
There are a number of other permitted versions of this sign—see the diagrams in Schedule 3.
101   Hand-held stop signs
(1)  A driver approaching a hand-held stop sign must stop before reaching the sign.
Offence provision.
(2)  The driver must not proceed until the holder of the sign:
(a)  no longer displays the sign towards the driver, or
(b)  otherwise indicates that the driver may proceed.
Offence provision.
(3)  This rule does not apply to a driver approaching or at a hand-held stop sign at a children’s crossing.
Note—
Rule 80 defines children’s crossing, and deals with hand-held stop signs at children’s crossings.
Hand-held stop signs
Note for diagrams—
There are a number of other permitted versions of this sign—see the diagrams in Schedule 3.
Division 3 Signs for trucks, buses and other large vehicles
102   Clearance and low clearance signs
(1)  A driver must not drive past a clearance sign, or a low clearance sign, if the driver’s vehicle, or any vehicle connected to it, is higher than the height (in metres) indicated by the sign.
Offence provision.
Note—
Driver’s vehicle is defined in the dictionary.
(2)  In this rule:
vehicle includes any load carried by the vehicle.
Clearance sign
Low clearance sign
103   Load limit signs
(1)  A driver must not drive past a bridge load limit (gross mass) sign or gross load limit sign if the total of the gross mass (in tonnes) of the driver’s vehicle, and any vehicle connected to it, is more than the gross mass indicated by the sign.
Offence provision.
Note—
Driver’s vehicle is defined in the dictionary.
(2)  A driver must not drive past a bridge load limit (mass per axle group) sign if the mass (in tonnes) carried by an axle group of the driver’s vehicle, or any vehicle connected to it, is more than the mass indicated by the sign for the axle group.
Offence provision.
(3)  In this rule:
vehicle includes any load carried by the vehicle.
Bridge load limit (gross mass) sign
Gross load limit sign
Bridge load limit (mass per axle group) sign
Note for diagrams—
There are a number of other permitted versions of the bridge load limit (mass per axle group) sign—see the diagrams in Schedule 3.
104   No trucks signs
(1)  A driver (except the driver of a bus) must not drive past a no trucks sign that has information on or with it indicating a mass if the GVM of the driver’s vehicle (or, if the driver is driving a combination, any vehicle in the combination) is more than that mass, unless the driver is permitted to drive the vehicle on a route passing the sign under another law of this jurisdiction.
Offence provision.
Note—
Bus, combination, driver’s vehicle, GVM and with are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  A driver (except the driver of a bus) must not drive past a no trucks sign that has information on or with it indicating a length if the length of the driver’s vehicle (or, if the driver is driving a combination, the length of the combination) is longer than that length, unless the driver is permitted to drive the vehicle on a route passing the sign under another law of this jurisdiction.
Offence provision.
(3)  The driver of a truck must not drive past a no trucks sign that has no information on or with it indicating a mass or length, unless the driver is permitted to drive the truck on a route passing the sign under another law of this jurisdiction.
Offence provision.
Note—
Truck is defined in the dictionary.
No trucks sign
105   Trucks must enter signs
If the driver of a truck drives past a trucks must enter sign, the driver must enter the area indicated by information on or with the sign.
Offence provision.
Note—
Truck and with are defined in the dictionary.
Trucks must enter sign
Note for diagram—
There are a number of other permitted versions of this sign—see the diagrams in Schedule 3.
106   No buses signs
(1)  The driver of a bus must not drive past a no buses sign that has information on or with it indicating a mass if the GVM of the bus is more than that mass.
Offence provision.
Note—
Bus, GVM and with are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  The driver of a bus must not drive past a no buses sign that has information on or with it indicating a length if the bus is longer than that length.
Offence provision.
(3)  The driver of a bus must not drive past a no buses sign that has no information on or with it indicating a mass or length.
Offence provision.
No buses sign
107   Buses must enter signs
If the driver of a bus drives past a buses must enter sign, the driver must enter the area indicated by information on or with the sign.
Offence provision.
Note—
Bus and with are defined in the dictionary.
Buses must enter sign
Note for diagram—
There is another permitted version of this sign—see the diagram in Schedule 3.
108   Trucks and buses low gear signs
(1)  If the driver of a truck or bus is driving on a length of road to which a trucks and buses low gear sign applies, the driver must drive the truck or bus in a gear that is low enough to limit the speed of the truck or bus without the use of a primary brake.
Offence provision.
Note—
Bus, length of road and truck are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  Subrule (1) does not apply to the driver of a bus if information on or with the sign indicates that it applies only to trucks.
Note—
With is defined in the dictionary.
(3)  A trucks and buses low gear sign on a road applies to the length of road beginning at the sign and ending:
(a)  if information on or with the sign indicates a distance—at that distance on the road from the sign, or
(b)  in any other case—at an end trucks and buses low gear sign on the road.
(4)  In this rule:
primary brake means the footbrake, or other brake, fitted to a truck or bus that is normally used to slow or stop the vehicle.
Trucks and buses low gear sign
End trucks and buses low gear sign
Note for diagrams—
There are a number of other permitted versions of the trucks and buses low gear sign, and another permitted version of the end trucks and buses low gear sign—see the diagrams in Schedule 3.
Part 9 Roundabouts
109   What is a roundabout
A roundabout is an intersection with:
(a)  one or more marked lanes, or lines of traffic, all of which are for the use of vehicles travelling in the same direction around a central traffic island, and
(b)  a roundabout sign at each entrance.
Note 1—
Intersection, marked lane, traffic and traffic island are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 322 (3) and (4) deal with the meaning of a traffic sign at a place.
Roundabout sign
110   Meaning of halfway around a roundabout
A driver leaves a roundabout halfway around the roundabout if the driver leaves the roundabout on a road that is straight ahead, or substantially straight ahead, from the road on which the driver enters the roundabout.
111   Entering a roundabout from a multi-lane road or a road with 2 or more lines of traffic travelling in the same direction
(1)  A driver entering a roundabout from a multi-lane road, or a road with 2 or more lines of traffic travelling in the same direction as the driver, must enter the roundabout in accordance with this rule.
Offence provision.
Note—
Multi-lane road is defined in the dictionary.
(2)  If the driver is to leave the roundabout less than halfway around it, the driver must enter the roundabout from the left marked lane or left line of traffic.
Note—
Marked lane is defined in the dictionary.
Example—
Example 1Leaving a roundabout less than halfway around it
(3)  If the driver is to leave the roundabout more than halfway around it, the driver must enter the roundabout from the right marked lane or right line of traffic.
Example—
Example 2Leaving a roundabout more than halfway around it
(4)  If the driver is to leave the roundabout halfway around it, the driver may enter the roundabout from any marked lane or line of traffic.
Example—
Example 3Leaving a roundabout halfway around it
(5)  Despite subrules (2) to (4), if the driver is entering the roundabout from a marked lane and there are traffic lane arrows applying to the lane, the driver must:
(a)  if the arrows indicate a single direction—drive in that direction after entering the roundabout, or
(b)  if the arrows indicate 2 or more directions—drive in one of those directions after entering the roundabout.
Note—
Traffic lane arrows is defined in the dictionary.
(6)  Subrule (3) does not apply to the rider of a bicycle or animal.
Note—
Bicycle is defined in the dictionary.
(7)  Subrule (5) does not apply to the rider of a bicycle or animal if the rider is to leave the roundabout more than halfway around it.
Examples—
Example 4Roundabout with 3 entry points
Example 5Roundabout with 5 entry points
Note 1 for examples 4 and 5—
Rule 116 requires a driver to obey traffic lane arrows when driving in or leaving a roundabout.
Note 2 for examples 4 and 5—
The rules in Part 11 about driving in marked lanes, and moving from one marked lane or line of traffic, apply to a driver driving in a roundabout—see rules 146 to 148.
112   Giving a left change of direction signal when entering a roundabout
(1)  This rule applies to a driver entering a roundabout if:
(a)  the driver is to leave the roundabout at the first exit after entering the roundabout, and
(b)  the exit is less than halfway around the roundabout.
(2)  The driver must give a left change of direction signal when the driver is entering the roundabout.
Offence provision.
Note—
Left change of direction signal is defined in the dictionary.
(3)  The driver must continue to give the change of direction signal until the driver has left the roundabout.
Offence provision.
(4)  This rule does not apply to a driver if the driver’s vehicle is not fitted with direction indicator lights.
Note—
Driver’s vehicle is defined in the dictionary.
113   Giving a right change of direction signal when entering a roundabout
(1)  This rule applies to a driver entering a roundabout if the driver is to leave the roundabout more than halfway around it.
(2)  The driver must give a right change of direction signal when the driver is entering the roundabout.
Offence provision.
Note—
Right change of direction signal is defined in the dictionary.
(3)  The driver must continue to give the change of direction signal while the driver is driving in the roundabout, unless:
(a)  the driver is changing marked lanes, or entering another line of traffic, or
(b)  the driver’s vehicle is not fitted with direction indicator lights.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Driver’s vehicle and marked lane are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 117 deals with giving change of direction signals before changing marked lanes, or entering another line of traffic, in a roundabout.
114   Giving way when entering or driving in a roundabout
(1)  A driver entering a roundabout must give way to:
(a)  any vehicle in the roundabout, and
(b)  a tram that is entering or approaching the roundabout.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Tram is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
For this rule, give way means the driver must slow down and, if necessary, stop to avoid a collision—see the definition in the dictionary.
(2)  A driver driving in a roundabout must give way to a tram that is in, entering or approaching the roundabout.
Offence provision.
(3)  In this rule:
tram includes a bus travelling along tram tracks.
Note 1—
Bus and travelling along tram tracks are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
For the give way rules applying to a driver moving from one marked lane or line of traffic to another marked lane or line of traffic, see rule 148.
115   Driving in a roundabout to the left of the central traffic island
(1)  A driver driving in a roundabout must drive to the left of the central traffic island in the roundabout, unless subrule (2) or (3) applies to the driver.
Offence provision.
Note—
Traffic island is defined in the dictionary.
(2)  This subrule applies to a driver if:
(a)  the driver’s vehicle is too large to drive in the roundabout without driving on the edge of the central traffic island, and
(b)  the driver can safely drive on the edge of the central traffic island.
Note—
Driver’s vehicle is defined in the dictionary.
(3)  This subrule applies to a driver if:
(a)  the driver’s vehicle is too large to drive in the roundabout without driving over the central traffic island, and
(b)  the central traffic island is designed to allow a vehicle of that kind to be driven over it.
116   Obeying traffic lane arrows when driving in or leaving a roundabout
If a driver is driving in a marked lane in a roundabout and there are traffic lane arrows applying to the lane, the driver must:
(a)  if the arrows indicate a single direction—drive in or leave the roundabout in that direction, or
(b)  if the arrows indicate 2 or more directions—drive in or leave the roundabout in one of those directions.
Offence provision.
Note—
Marked lane and traffic lane arrows are defined in the dictionary.
117   Giving a change of direction signal when changing marked lanes or lines of traffic in a roundabout
(1)  A driver driving in a roundabout must give a left change of direction signal before the driver changes marked lanes to the left, or enters a line of traffic to the left, in the roundabout, unless the driver’s vehicle is not fitted with direction indicator lights.
Offence provision.
Note—
Driver’s vehicle and left change of direction signal are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  A driver driving in a roundabout must give a right change of direction signal before the driver changes marked lanes to the right, or enters a line of traffic to the right, in the roundabout.
Offence provision.
Note—
Right change of direction signal is defined in the dictionary.
118   Giving a left change of direction signal when leaving a roundabout
(1)  If practicable, a driver driving in a roundabout must give a left change of direction signal when leaving the roundabout.
Offence provision.
Note—
Left change of direction signal is defined in the dictionary.
(2)  The driver must stop giving the change of direction signal as soon as the driver has left the roundabout.
Offence provision.
(3)  This rule does not apply to a driver if the driver’s vehicle is not fitted with direction indicator lights.
Note 1—
Driver’s vehicle is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
The rules in Part 11 about driving in marked lanes and moving from one marked lane or line of traffic to another marked lane or line of traffic apply to a driver leaving a roundabout—see rules 146 to 148.
119   Giving way by the rider of a bicycle or animal to a vehicle leaving a roundabout
The rider of a bicycle or animal who is riding in the far left marked lane of a roundabout with 2 or more marked lanes, or the far left line of traffic in a roundabout with 2 or more lines of traffic, must give way to any vehicle leaving the roundabout.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Bicycle and marked lane are defined in the dictionary, and vehicle is defined in rule 15.
Note 2—
For this rule, give way means the rider must slow down and, if necessary, stop to avoid a collision—see the definition in the dictionary.
Part 10 Level crossings
120   What is a level crossing
(1)  A level crossing is:
(a)  an area where a road and a railway meet at substantially the same level, whether or not there is a level crossing sign on the road at all or any of the entrances to the area, or
(b)  an area where a road and tram tracks meet at substantially the same level and that has a level crossing sign on the road at each entrance to the area.
Note—
Tram tracks is defined in the dictionary.
(2)  In this rule:
road does not include a road-related area.
Note—
Road-related area is defined in rule 13.
Level crossing signs
121   Stopping and giving way at a stop sign at a level crossing
A driver at a level crossing with a stop sign must:
(a)  stop at the stop line or, if there is no stop line, at the stop sign, and
(b)  give way to any train or tram on, approaching or entering the crossing.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Approaching, enter, stop line and tram are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
For this rule, give way means the driver must remain stationary until it is safe for the driver to proceed—see the definition in the dictionary.
Stop sign
122   Giving way at a give way sign or give way line at a level crossing
A driver at a level crossing with a give way sign or give way line must give way to any train or tram on, approaching or entering the crossing.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Approaching, enter, give way line and tram are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
For this rule, give way means the driver must slow down and, if necessary, stop to avoid a collision—see the definition in the dictionary.
Give way sign
123   Entering a level crossing when a train or tram is approaching etc
A driver must not enter a level crossing if:
(a)  warning lights (for example, twin red lights or rotating red lights) are operating or warning bells are ringing, or
(b)  a gate, boom or barrier at the crossing is closed or is opening or closing, or
(c)  a train or tram is on or entering the crossing, or
(d)  a train or tram approaching the crossing can be seen from the crossing, or is sounding a warning, and there would be a danger of a collision with the train or tram if the driver entered the crossing, or
(e)  the driver cannot drive through the crossing because the crossing, or a road beyond the crossing, is blocked.
Offence provision.
Examples for paragraph (e)—
The crossing, or a road beyond the crossing, may be blocked by congested traffic, a disabled vehicle, a collision between vehicles or between a vehicle and a pedestrian, or by stock on the road.
Note—
Approaching, enter, tram and twin red lights are defined in the dictionary.
124   Leaving a level crossing
A driver who enters a level crossing must leave the level crossing as soon as the driver can do so safely.
Offence provision.
Note—
Enter is defined in the dictionary.
Part 11 Keeping left, overtaking and other driving rules
Division 1 General
125   Unreasonably obstructing drivers or pedestrians
(1)  A driver must not unreasonably obstruct the path of another driver or a pedestrian.
Offence provision.
Note—
Driver includes a person in control of a vehicle—see the definition of drive in the dictionary.
(2)  For this rule, a driver does not unreasonably obstruct the path of another driver or a pedestrian only because:
(a)  the driver is stopped in traffic, or
(b)  the driver is driving more slowly than other vehicles (unless the driver is driving abnormally slowly in the circumstances).
Example of a driver driving abnormally slowly—
A driver driving at a speed of 20 kilometres per hour on a length of road to which a speed-limit of 80 kilometres per hour applies when there is no reason for the driver to drive at that speed on the length of road.
126   Keeping a safe distance behind vehicles
A driver must drive a sufficient distance behind a vehicle travelling in front of the driver so the driver can, if necessary, stop safely to avoid a collision with the vehicle.
Offence provision.
127   Keeping a minimum distance between long vehicles
(1)  The driver of a long vehicle must drive at least the required minimum distance behind another long vehicle travelling in front of the driver, unless the driver is:
(a)  driving on a multi-lane road or any length of road in a built-up area, or
(b)  overtaking.
Offence provision.
Note—
Built-up area, length of road, multi-lane road and overtake are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  In this rule:
long vehicle means a vehicle that, together with any load or projection, is 7.5 metres long, or longer.
Note—
Vehicle includes a combination—see rule 15 (d).
required minimum distance means:
(a)  for a long vehicle in a road train area—200 metres or, if another law of this jurisdiction provides another distance for the area, that distance, or
(b)  for a long vehicle in another area—60 metres or, if another law of this jurisdiction provides another distance for the area, that distance.
road train means a combination that is a road train for the Australian Road Rules under another law of this jurisdiction.
Note—
Combination is defined in the dictionary.
road train area means an area where, under another law of this jurisdiction, road trains may be driven.
128   Entering blocked intersections
A driver must not enter an intersection if the driver cannot drive through the intersection because the intersection, or a road beyond the intersection, is blocked.
Offence provision.
Examples—
The intersection, or a road beyond the intersection, may be blocked by congested traffic, a disabled vehicle, a collision between vehicles or between a vehicle and a pedestrian, or by a fallen load on the road.
Note—
Enter and intersection are defined in the dictionary.
Division 2 Keeping to the left
129   Keeping to the far left side of a road
(1)  A driver on a road (except a multi-lane road or a road with 2 or more lines of traffic travelling in the same direction as the driver) must drive as near as practicable to the far left side of the road.
Offence provision.
Note—
Multi-lane road is defined in the dictionary.
(2)  This rule does not apply to the rider of a motor bike.
Note—
Motor bike is defined in the dictionary.
(3)  In this rule:
road does not include a road-related area.
Note—
Road-related area includes the shoulder of a road—see rule 13.
130   Keeping to the left on a multi-lane road
(1)  This rule applies to a driver driving on a multi-lane road if:
(a)  the speed-limit applying to the driver for the length of road where the driver is driving is over 80 kilometres per hour, or
(b)  a keep left unless overtaking sign applies to the length of road where the driver is driving.
Note 1—
Length of road and multi-lane road are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Part 3 deals with speed-limits.
(2)  The driver must not drive in the right lane unless:
(a)  the driver is turning right, or making a U-turn from the centre of the road, and is giving a right change of direction signal, or
(b)  the driver is overtaking, or
(c)  a left lane must turn left sign or left traffic lane arrows apply to any other lane and the driver is not turning left, or
(d)  the driver is required to drive in the right lane under rule 159, or
(e)  the driver is avoiding an obstruction, or
(f)  the traffic in each other lane is congested, or
(g)  the traffic in every lane is congested.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Centre of the road, left traffic lane arrows, obstruction, overtake, right change of direction signal, traffic and U-turn are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 159 deals with traffic signs that require a particular kind of vehicle to drive in the marked lane indicated by the signs.
Note 3—
Rule 329 deals with when a traffic control device applies to a marked lane.
(3)  A keep left unless overtaking sign on a multi-lane road applies to the length of road beginning at the sign and ending at the nearest of the following:
(a)  an end keep left unless overtaking sign on the road,
(b)  a traffic sign or road marking on the road that indicates that the road is no longer a multi-lane road,
(c)  if the road ends at a T-intersection or dead end—the end of the road.
Note—
Road marking, T-intersection and traffic sign are defined in the dictionary.
(4)  In this rule:
lane, for a driver, means a marked lane for vehicles travelling in the same direction as the driver, but does not include a special purpose lane in which the driver is not permitted to drive.
Note 1—
Marked lane and special purpose lane are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 95 deals with driving in emergency stopping lanes, and Division 6 of this Part deals with driving in other special purpose lanes.
Keep left unless overtaking sign
End keep left unless overtaking sign
131   Keeping to the left of oncoming vehicles
A driver must drive to the left of any oncoming vehicle unless:
(a)  the driver is turning right at an intersection, and
(b)  the driver is passing an oncoming vehicle turning right at the intersection, and
(c)  there is no traffic sign or road marking indicating that the driver must pass to the left of the oncoming vehicle.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Intersection, oncoming vehicle, road marking and traffic sign are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Part 4, Division 2 deals with making right turns.
Examples—
Example 1Driving to the left of an oncoming vehicle
Example 2Oncoming vehicles turning right passing to the right of each other
132   Keeping to the left of the centre of a road or the dividing line
(1)  A driver on a two-way road without a dividing line or median strip must drive to the left of the centre of the road, except as permitted under rule 133 or 139 (1).
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Centre of the road, dividing line, median strip and two-way road are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
For the meaning of driving to the left of something, see rule 351 (3).
Note 3—
Rule 133 deals with driving to the right of the centre of the road to overtake another vehicle, to enter or leave a road, to move from one part of the road to another, or because of the width or condition of the road. Rule 139 (1) deals with driving to the right of the centre of the road to avoid an obstruction.
(2)  A driver on a road with a dividing line must drive to the left of the dividing line, except as permitted under rule 134 or 139 (2).
Offence provision.
Note—
Rule 134 deals with driving to the right of the dividing line to overtake another vehicle, to enter or leave a road, or to move from one part of the road to another. Rule 139 (2) deals with driving to the right of the dividing line to avoid an obstruction.
(3)  This rule, and rules 133, 134 and 139 (1) and (2), apply to a service road to which a two-way sign applies as if it were a separate road, but do not apply to any other service road.
Note 1—
Service road is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 136 deals with driving on a service road without a two-way sign.
Two-way sign
Note for diagram—
There is another permitted version of the two-way sign—see the diagram in Schedule 3.
Examples for subrule (2)—
Example 1Driving to the left of a single continuous dividing line only
Example 2Driving to the left of a single continuous dividing line to the left of a broken dividing line
Example 3Driving to the left of 2 parallel continuous dividing lines
133   Exceptions to keeping to the left of the centre of a road
(1)  This rule applies to a driver on a two-way road without a dividing line or median strip.
Note—
Dividing line, median strip and two-way road are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  The driver may drive to the right of the centre of the road:
(a)  to overtake another driver, or
(b)  to enter or leave the road, or
(c)  to enter a part of the road of one kind from a part of the road of another kind (for example, moving to or from a service road or emergency stopping lane).
Note—
Centre of the road, overtake and service road are defined in the dictionary, and emergency stopping lane is defined in rule 95.
(3)  The driver may also drive to the right of the centre of the road if:
(a)  because of the width or condition of the road, it is not practicable to drive to the left of the centre of the road, and
(b)  the driver can do so safely.
134   Exceptions to keeping to the left of a dividing line
(1)  This rule applies to a driver on a road with a dividing line.
Note—
Dividing line is defined the dictionary.
(2)  If the dividing line is a broken dividing line only, or a broken dividing line to the left of a single continuous dividing line, the driver may drive to the right of the dividing line to overtake another driver.
Note 1—
Overtake is defined the dictionary.
Note 2—
A driver must not overtake another driver unless the driver has a clear view of any approaching traffic, and it is safe to overtake the other driver—see rule 140.
(3)  If the dividing line is not 2 parallel continuous dividing lines, the driver may drive to the right of the dividing line:
(a)  to enter or leave the road, or
(b)  to enter a part of the road of one kind from a part of the road of another kind (for example, moving to or from a service road or emergency stopping lane).
Note—
Emergency stopping lane is defined in rule 95, and service road is defined in the dictionary.
Examples—
Example 1Driving to the right of the centre of the road permitted—overtaking on a road with a broken dividing line only
Example 2Driving to the right of the centre of the road permitted—overtaking on a road with a broken dividing line to the left of a single continuous dividing line
Example 3Driving to the right of the centre of the road not permitted—overtaking on a road with a single continuous dividing line only
Example 4Driving to the right of the centre of the road not permitted—overtaking on a road with a single continuous dividing line to the left of a broken dividing line
Example 5Driving to the right of the centre of the road not permitted—overtaking on a road with 2 parallel continuous dividing lines
135   Keeping to the left of a median strip
(1)  A driver on a road with a median strip must drive to the left of the median strip, unless the driver is:
(a)  entering or driving in a median strip parking area, or
(b)  required to drive to the right of the median strip by a keep right sign.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Median strip and median strip parking area are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
For the meaning of driving to the left of something, see rule 351 (3).
(2)  In this rule:
median strip does not include a painted island.
Note 1—
Painted island is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 138 deals with keeping off painted islands.
Keep right sign
136   Driving on a one-way service road
A driver on the part of the road that is a service road (except a service road to which a two-way sign applies) must drive in the same direction as a vehicle travelling on the part of the road used by the main body of moving vehicles in the marked lane or line of traffic closest to the service road.
Offence provision.
Note—
Marked lane, part of the road used by the main body of moving vehicles and service road are defined in the dictionary.
Two-way sign
Note for diagram—
There is another permitted version of the two-way sign—see the diagram in Schedule 3.
137   Keeping off a dividing strip
(1)  A driver must not drive on a dividing strip, except as permitted under this rule or rule 139 (4).
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Dividing strip is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 139 deals with avoiding obstructions on a road.
(2)  A driver may drive on a dividing strip that is at the same level as the road, and marked at each side by a continuous line:
(a)  to enter or leave the road, or
(b)  to enter or leave an area on the dividing strip to which a parking control sign applies if the driver is permitted to park in the area.
Note 1—
Parking control sign is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Part 12 deals with restrictions on stopping and parking.
(3)  In this rule:
dividing strip does not include a painted island.
Note 1—
Painted island is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 138 deals with keeping off painted islands.
138   Keeping off a painted island
(1)  A driver must not drive on or over a single continuous line, or 2 parallel continuous lines, along a side of or surrounding a painted island, except as permitted under this rule or rule 139 (4).
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Painted island is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 139 deals with avoiding obstructions on a road.
Example—
Painted island surrounded by 2 parallel continuous lines
In this example, vehicle B is contravening the rule.
(2)  A driver may drive on or over a single continuous line along the side of or surrounding a painted island:
(a)  to enter or leave the road, or
(b)  to enter a turning lane that begins immediately after the painted island.
Note 1—
Turning lane is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 85 deals with the give way rules applying to a driver entering a turning lane from a painted island.
139   Exceptions for avoiding obstructions on a road
(1)  A driver on a two-way road without a dividing line or median strip may drive to the right of the centre of the road to avoid an obstruction if:
(a)  the driver has a clear view of any approaching traffic, and
(b)  it is necessary and reasonable, in all the circumstances, for the driver to drive to the right of the centre of the road to avoid the obstruction, and
(c)  the driver can do so safely.
Note—
Approaching, centre of the road, dividing line, median strip, obstruction, traffic and two-way road are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  A driver on a road with a dividing line may drive to the right of the dividing line to avoid an obstruction if:
(a)  the driver has a clear view of any approaching traffic, and
(b)  it is necessary and reasonable, in all the circumstances, for the driver to drive to the right of the dividing line to avoid the obstruction, and
(c)  the driver can do so safely.
(3)  For subrule (2), if the dividing line is a single continuous dividing line to the left of a broken dividing line, a single continuous dividing line only or 2 parallel continuous dividing lines, the hazard in driving to the right of such a dividing line must be taken into account in deciding whether it is reasonable to drive to the right of the dividing line.
(4)  A driver may drive on a dividing strip, or on or over a single continuous line, or 2 parallel continuous lines, along a side of or surrounding a painted island, to avoid an obstruction if:
(a)  the driver has a clear view of any approaching traffic, and
(b)  it is necessary and reasonable to drive on the dividing strip or painted island to avoid the obstruction, and
(c)  the driver can do so safely.
Note—
Dividing strip and painted island are defined in the dictionary.
Division 3 Overtaking
140   No overtaking unless safe to do so
A driver must not overtake a vehicle unless:
(a)  the driver has a clear view of any approaching traffic, and
(b)  the driver can safely overtake the vehicle.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Approaching, overtake and traffic are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
A driver is not permitted to overtake another vehicle by crossing a single continuous dividing line only, a single continuous dividing line to the left of a broken dividing line or 2 parallel continuous dividing lines—see rules 134 (2) and 132 (2).
141   No overtaking etc to the left of a vehicle
(1)  A driver (except the rider of a bicycle) must not overtake a vehicle to the left of the vehicle unless:
(a)  the driver is driving on a multi-lane road and the vehicle can be safely overtaken in a marked lane to the left of the vehicle, or
(b)  the vehicle is turning right, or making a U-turn from the centre of the road, and is giving a right change of direction signal.
Offence provision.
Note—
Bicycle, centre of the road, marked lane, multi-lane road, overtake, right change of direction signal and U-turn are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  The rider of a bicycle must not ride past, or overtake, to the left of a vehicle that is turning left and is giving a left change of direction signal.
Offence provision.
Note—
Left change of direction signal is defined in the dictionary.
(3)  In this rule:
turning right does not include making a hook turn.
vehicle does not include a tram, a bus travelling along tram tracks, or any vehicle displaying a do not overtake turning vehicle sign.
Note 1—
Bus, tram and travelling along tram tracks are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Part 4, Division 3 deals with making hook turns.
Note 3—
Division 7 of this Part deals with overtaking and passing trams (and buses travelling along tram tracks). Rule 143 deals with overtaking or passing a vehicle displaying a do not overtake turning vehicle sign.
142   No overtaking to the right of a vehicle turning right etc
(1)  A driver must not overtake to the right of a vehicle if the vehicle is turning right, or making a U-turn from the centre of the road, and is giving a right change of direction signal.
Offence provision.
Note—
Centre of the road, overtake, right change of direction signal and U-turn are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  In this rule:
turning right does not include making a hook turn.
vehicle does not include a tram, a bus travelling along tram tracks, or any vehicle displaying a do not overtake turning vehicle sign.
Note 1—
Bus, tram and travelling along tram tracks are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Part 4, Division 3 deals with making hook turns.
Note 3—
Division 7 of this Part deals with overtaking and passing trams (and buses travelling along tram tracks). Rule 143 deals with overtaking or passing a vehicle displaying a do not overtake turning vehicle sign.
143   Passing or overtaking a vehicle displaying a do not overtake turning vehicle sign
(1)  A driver must not drive past, or overtake, to the left of a vehicle displaying a do not overtake turning vehicle sign if the vehicle is turning left and is giving a left change of direction signal, unless it is safe to do so.
Offence provision.
Note—
Left change of direction signal and overtake are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  A driver must not drive past, or overtake, to the right of a vehicle displaying a do not overtake turning vehicle sign if the vehicle is turning right, or making a U-turn from the centre of the road, and is giving a right change of direction signal, unless it is safe to do so.
Offence provision.
Example—
A driver driving on a multi-lane road who is turning right at an intersection to which a right turn only sign applies may drive past a vehicle displaying a do not overtake turning vehicle sign that is turning right from another marked lane, and giving a right change of direction signal, if it is safe to do so.
Note—
Centre of the road, right change of direction signal and U-turn are defined in the dictionary.
(3)  In this rule:
turning right does not include making a hook turn.
Note—
Part 4, Division 3 deals with making hook turns.
Do not overtake turning vehicle signs
Note for diagrams—
These signs are displayed on certain long vehicles.
144   Keeping a safe distance when overtaking
A driver overtaking a vehicle:
(a)  must pass the vehicle at a sufficient distance to avoid a collision with the vehicle or obstructing the path of the vehicle, and
(b)  must not return to the marked lane or line of traffic where the vehicle is travelling until the driver is a sufficient distance past the vehicle to avoid a collision with the vehicle or obstructing the path of the vehicle.
Offence provision.
Note—
Marked lane and overtake are defined in the dictionary.
145   Driver being overtaken not to increase speed
If a driver is overtaking another driver on a two-way road by crossing a dividing line, or crossing to the right of the centre of the road, the other driver must not increase the speed at which the driver is driving until the first driver:
(a)  has passed the other driver, and
(b)  has returned to the marked lane or line of traffic where the other driver is driving, and
(c)  is a sufficient distance in front of the other driver to avoid a collision.
Offence provision.
Note—
Centre of the road, dividing line, marked lane, overtake and two-way road are defined in the dictionary.
Division 4 Driving in marked lanes or lines of traffic
146   Driving within a single marked lane or line of traffic
(1)  A driver on a multi-lane road must drive so the driver’s vehicle is completely in a marked lane, unless the driver is:
(a)  entering a part of the road of one kind from a part of the road of another kind (for example, moving to or from a service road, a shoulder of the road or emergency stopping lane), or
(b)  entering or leaving the road, or
(c)  moving from one marked lane to another marked lane, or
(d)  avoiding an obstruction, or
(e)  obeying a traffic control device applying to the marked lane, or
(f)  permitted to drive in more than one marked lane under another provision of the Australian Road Rules or under another law of this jurisdiction.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Driver’s vehicle, marked lane, multi-lane road, obstruction, service road and traffic control device are defined in the dictionary, shoulder is defined in rule 12, and emergency stopping lane is defined in rule 95.
Note 2—
A driver is generally not permitted to move from one marked lane to another marked lane across a continuous line separating the lanes—see rule 147.
Note 3—
Rule 148 deals with giving way when moving from one marked lane to another marked lane.
Note 4—
An overhead lane control device may require a driver to leave a marked lane—see rule 152.
Note 5—
Drivers of certain long vehicles are permitted to use 2 marked lanes when turning at an intersection—see rule 28 (left turns) and rule 32 (right turns).
(2)  A driver on a road with 2 or more lines of traffic travelling in the same direction as the driver, but without marked lanes, must drive so the driver’s vehicle is completely in a single line of traffic unless:
(a)  it is not practicable to drive completely in a single line of traffic, or
(b)  the driver is entering a part of the road of one kind from a part of the road of another kind (for example, moving to or from a service road, a shoulder of the road or an emergency stopping lane), or
(c)  the driver is entering or leaving the road, or
(d)  the driver is moving from one line of traffic to another line of traffic, or
(e)  the driver is avoiding an obstruction.
Offence provision.
Note—
Rule 148 deals with giving way when moving from one line of traffic to another line of traffic.
147   Moving from one marked lane to another marked lane across a continuous line separating the lanes
A driver on a multi-lane road must not move from one marked lane to another marked lane by crossing a continuous line separating the lanes unless:
(a)  the driver is avoiding an obstruction, or
(b)  the driver is obeying a traffic control device applying to the first marked lane, or
(c)  the driver is permitted to drive in both marked lanes under another provision of the Australian Road Rules or under another law of this jurisdiction, or
(d)  either of the marked lanes is a special purpose lane in which the driver is permitted to drive under the Australian Road Rules and the driver is moving to or from the special purpose lane.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Marked lane, multi-lane road, obstruction, special purpose lane and traffic control device are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
An overhead lane control device may require a driver to leave a marked lane—see rule 152.
Note 3—
Drivers of certain long vehicles are permitted to use 2 marked lanes when turning at an intersection—see rule 28 (left turns) and rule 32 (right turns).
Note 4—
Rule 95 deals with driving in emergency stopping lanes, and Division 6 of this Part deals with driving in other special purpose lanes.
148   Giving way when moving from one marked lane or line of traffic to another marked lane or line of traffic
(1)  A driver on a multi-lane road who is moving from one marked lane (whether or not the lane is ending) to another marked lane must give way to any vehicle travelling in the same direction as the driver in the marked lane to which the driver is moving.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Marked lane and multi-lane road are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
For this rule, give way means the driver must slow down and, if necessary, stop to avoid a collision—see the definition in the dictionary.
Example—
Giving way when moving from one marked lane to another marked lane
In this example, vehicle B must give way to vehicle A.
(2)  A driver on a road with 2 or more lines of traffic travelling in the same direction as the driver, and who is moving from one line of traffic (whether or not the line of traffic is ending) to another line of traffic, must give way to any vehicle travelling in the same direction as the driver in the line of traffic to which the driver is moving.
Offence provision.
(3)  Subrule (2) does not apply to a driver if the line of traffic in which the driver is driving is merging with the line of traffic to which the driver is moving.
Note—
Rule 149 deals with giving way when lines of traffic merge.
Example—
Giving way when moving from one line of traffic to another line of traffic when the lines are not merging
In this example, vehicle B must give way to vehicle A
149   Giving way when lines of traffic merge into a single line of traffic
A driver in a line of traffic that is merging with one or more lines of traffic travelling in the same direction as the driver must give way to a vehicle in another line of traffic if any part of the vehicle is ahead of the driver’s vehicle.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Driver’s vehicle is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
For this rule, give way means the driver must slow down and, if necessary, stop to avoid a collision—see the definition in the dictionary.
Example—
Giving way when lines of traffic merge into a single line of traffic
In this example, vehicle B must give way to vehicle A.
150   Driving on or across a continuous white edge line
(1)  A driver must not drive on or over a continuous white edge line on a road unless the driver is:
(a)  turning at an intersection, or
(b)  entering or leaving the road, or
(c)  entering a part of the road of one kind from a part of the road of another kind (for example, moving to or from a service road, a shoulder of the road or an emergency stopping lane), or
(d)  overtaking a vehicle that is turning right, or making a U-turn from the centre of the road, and is giving a right change of direction signal, or
(e)  driving a slow-moving vehicle, or
(f)  stopping at the side of the road (including any shoulder of the road), or
(g)  driving a vehicle that is too wide, or too long, to drive on the road without driving on or over the edge line, or
(h)  permitted to drive on or over the edge line under another law of this jurisdiction.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Centre of the road, edge line, intersection, overtake, right change of direction signal, service road and U-turn are defined in the dictionary, emergency stopping lane is defined in rule 95, and shoulder is defined in rule 12.
Note 2—
A driver must not stop at the side of a road marked with a continuous yellow edge line—see rule 169.
(2)  This rule does not apply to the rider of a bicycle or animal.
Note—
Bicycle is defined in the dictionary.
151   Riding a motor bike or bicycle alongside more than 1 other rider
(1)  The rider of a motor bike or bicycle must not ride on a road that is not a multi-lane road alongside more than 1 other rider, unless subrule (3) applies to the rider.
Offence provision.
Note—
Bicycle, motor bike and multi-lane road are defined in the dictionary, and rider is defined in rule 17.
(2)  The rider of a motor bike or bicycle must not ride in a marked lane alongside more than 1 other rider in the marked lane, unless subrule (3) applies to the rider.
Offence provision.
Note—
Marked lane is defined in the dictionary.
(3)  The rider of a motor bike or bicycle may ride alongside more than 1 other rider if the rider is:
(a)  overtaking the other riders, or
(b)  permitted to do so under another law of this jurisdiction.
Note—
Overtake is defined in the dictionary.
(4)  If the rider of a motor bike or bicycle is riding on a road that is not a multi-lane road alongside another rider, or in a marked lane alongside another rider in the marked lane, the rider must ride not over 1.5 metres from the other rider.
Offence provision.
(5)  In this rule:
road does not include a road-related area, but includes a bicycle path, shared path and any shoulder of the road.
Note—
Bicycle path is defined in rule 239, road-related area is defined in rule 13, shared path is defined in rule 242, and shoulder is defined in rule 12.
Division 5 Obeying overhead lane control devices applying to marked lanes
152   Complying with overhead lane control devices
(1)  A driver in a marked lane to which an overhead lane control device applies must comply with this rule.
Offence provision.
Note—
Marked lane and overhead lane control device are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  If the device displays an illuminated red diagonal cross or is a traffic sign displaying a red diagonal cross, the driver must not drive in the marked lane past the device.
(3)  If the device displays a flashing illuminated red diagonal cross, the driver must leave the marked lane as soon as it is safe to do so.
(4)  If the device displays an illuminated white, green or yellow arrow pointing downwards or indicating one or more directions, the driver may drive in the marked lane past the device.
Example—
Overhead lane control device applying to marked lanes
Note for diagram—
If the device displays an arrow indicating one or more directions, the device operates also as traffic lane arrows—see the definition of traffic lane arrows in the dictionary. Rule 92 deals with traffic lane arrows.
Division 6 Driving in marked lanes designated for special purposes
153   Bicycle lanes
(1)  A driver (except the rider of a bicycle) must not drive in a bicycle lane, unless the driver is permitted to drive in the bicycle lane under this rule or rule 158.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Bicycle is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 158 provides additional exceptions applying to this rule, and also provides a defence to the prosecution of a driver for an offence against this rule.
(2)  If stopping or parking is permitted at a place in a bicycle lane under another law of this jurisdiction, a driver may drive for up to 50 metres in the bicycle lane to stop or park at that place.
Note—
Part 12 deals with parking and restricted stopping areas.
(3)  A driver may drive for up to 50 metres in a bicycle lane if:
(a)  the driver is driving a public bus, public minibus or taxi, and is dropping off or picking up, passengers, and
(b)  there is not another law of this jurisdiction prohibiting the driver from driving in the bicycle lane.
Note—
Public bus, public minibus and taxi are defined in the dictionary.
(4)  A bicycle lane is a marked lane, or the part of a marked lane:
(a)  beginning at a bicycle lane sign applying to the lane, and
(b)  ending at the nearest of the following:
(i)  an end bicycle lane sign applying to the lane,
(ii)  an intersection (unless the lane is at the unbroken side of the continuing road at a T-intersection or continued across the intersection by broken lines),
(iii)  if the road ends at a dead end—the end of the road.
Note—
Continuing road, intersection, marked lane and T-intersection are defined in the dictionary.
Bicycle lane sign
End bicycle lane sign
Note for diagrams—
There are a number of other permitted versions of the bicycle lane sign, and another permitted version of the end bicycle lane sign—see the diagrams in Schedule 3.
154   Bus lanes
(1)  A driver (except the driver of a public bus) must not drive in a bus lane, unless the driver is permitted to drive in the bus lane under rule 158.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Public bus is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 158 provides additional exceptions applying to this rule, and also provides a defence to the prosecution of a driver for an offence against this rule.
(2)  A bus lane is a marked lane, or the part of a marked lane:
(a)  beginning at a bus lane sign, and
(b)  ending at an end bus lane sign.
Note—
Marked lane is defined in the dictionary.
Bus lane sign
End bus lane sign
Note for diagrams—
There are a number of other permitted versions of each of these signs—see the diagrams in Schedule 3.
155   Tram lanes
(1)  A driver (except the driver of a tram or public bus) must not drive in a tram lane, unless the driver is permitted to drive in the tram lane under this rule or rule 158.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Public bus and tram are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 158 provides additional exceptions applying to this rule, and also provides a defence to the prosecution of a driver for an offence against this rule.
(2)  A driver may drive in a tram lane if the driver is driving a truck and it is necessary for the driver to drive in the tram lane to reach a place to drop off, or pick up, passengers or goods.
(3)  A tram lane is a part of a road with tram tracks that:
(a)  is marked along the left side of the tracks by a continuous yellow line parallel to the tracks, and
(b)  begins at a tram lane sign, and
(c)  ends at an end tram lane sign.
Note—
Tram tracks and left are defined in the dictionary.
Tram lane sign
End tram lane sign
Note for diagrams—
There are a number of other permitted versions of the tram lane sign and another permitted version of the end tram lane sign—see the diagrams in Schedule 3.
Example—
Tram lane
156   Transit lanes
(1)  A driver must not drive in a transit lane unless:
(a)  the driver is driving:
(i)  a public bus, public minibus, motor bike, taxi or tram, or
(ii)  if the transit lane sign applying to the transit lane is a transit lane (T2) sign—a vehicle carrying at least 1 other person, or
(iii)  if the transit lane sign applying to the transit lane is a transit lane (T3) sign—a vehicle carrying at least 2 other people, or
(b)  the driver is permitted to drive in the transit lane under rule 158.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Motor bike, public bus, public minibus, taxi and tram are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 158 provides additional exceptions applying to this rule, and also provides a defence to the prosecution of a driver for an offence against this rule.
(2)  A transit lane is a marked lane, or the part of a marked lane:
(a)  beginning at a transit lane sign, and
(b)  ending at an end transit lane sign.
Note—
Marked lane is defined in the dictionary.
Transit lane signs
Transit lane (T2) sign
Transit lane (T3) sign
End transit lane signs
End transit lane (T2) sign
End transit lane (T3) sign
Note for diagrams—
There are a number of other permitted versions of the transit lane sign and another permitted version of the end transit lane sign—see the diagrams in Schedule 3.
157   Truck lanes
(1)  A driver (except the driver of a truck) must not drive in a truck lane, unless the driver is permitted to drive in the truck lane under rule 158.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Truck is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 158 provides additional exceptions applying to this rule, and also provides a defence to the prosecution of a driver for an offence against this rule.
(2)  A truck lane is a marked lane, or the part of a marked lane:
(a)  beginning at a truck lane sign, and
(b)  ending at an end truck lane sign.
Note—
Marked lane is defined in the dictionary.
Truck lane sign
End truck lane sign
Note for diagrams—
There is another permitted version of the end truck lane sign—see the diagram in Schedule 3.
158   Exceptions to driving in special purpose lanes etc
(1)  The driver of any vehicle may drive for up to the permitted distance in a bicycle lane, bus lane, tram lane, transit lane or truck lane if it is necessary for the driver to drive in the lane:
(a)  to enter or leave the road, or
(b)  to enter a part of the road of one kind from a part of the road of another kind (for example, moving to or from a service road, the shoulder of the road or an emergency stopping lane), or
(c)  to overtake a vehicle that is turning right, or making a U-turn from the centre of the road, and is giving a right change of direction signal, or
(d)  to enter a marked lane, or a line of traffic, from the side of the road.
Note 1—
Permitted distance is defined in subrule (4).
Note 2—
Bicycle lane is defined in rule 153, bus lane is defined in rule 154, emergency stopping lane is defined in rule 95, centre of the road, marked lane, overtake, right change of direction signal, service road and U-turn are defined in the dictionary, shoulder is defined in rule 12, tram lane is defined in rule 155, transit lane is defined in rule 156, and truck lane is defined in rule 157.
Note 3—
A driver must keep clear of a tram travelling in a tram lane—see rule 76.
(2)  The driver of any vehicle may drive in a bicycle lane, bus lane, tram lane, transit lane or truck lane if:
(a)  it is necessary for the driver to drive in the lane to avoid an obstruction, or
(b)  information on or with a traffic sign applying to the lane indicates that the driver may drive in the lane, or
(c)  the driver is permitted to drive in the lane under another law of this jurisdiction.
Note—
Obstruction, traffic sign and with are defined in the dictionary.
(3)  It is a defence to the prosecution of a driver for an offence against a provision of this Division for driving in a bicycle lane, bus lane, tram lane, transit lane or truck lane if:
(a)  it is necessary for the driver to drive in the lane to stop at a place in the lane, and
(b)  the driver is permitted to stop at that place under the Australian Road Rules or another law of this jurisdiction, or it is a defence under rule 165 for the driver to stop at that place, and
(c)  if the lane is a bicycle lane—the driver drives in the lane for no more than the permitted distance.
Note—
Rule 165 provides a defence to the prosecution of a driver for an offence against a provision of Part 12 (Restrictions on stopping and parking). The defence is available, for example, if the driver needs to stop to deal with a medical or other emergency.
(4)  In this rule:
permitted distance means:
(a)  for a bicycle lane—50 metres, or
(b)  for any other lane—100 metres.
159   Marked lanes required to be used by particular kinds of vehicles
(1)  If information on or with a traffic sign applying to a length of road indicates that a vehicle of a particular kind must drive in a particular marked lane, a driver driving a vehicle of that kind on the length of road must drive in the indicated lane, unless the driver is:
(a)  avoiding an obstruction, or
(b)  obeying a traffic control device applying to the indicated lane, or
(c)  permitted to drive in the indicated lane and also another marked lane under another provision of the Australian Road Rules or under another law of this jurisdiction.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Length of road, marked lane, obstruction, traffic control device, traffic sign and with are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
An overhead lane control device may require a driver to leave a marked lane—see rule 152.
Note 3—
Drivers of certain long vehicles are permitted to use 2 marked lanes when turning at an intersection—see rule 28 (left turns) and rule 32 (right turns).
(2)  A traffic sign mentioned in this rule that is on a road applies to the length of road beginning at the sign and ending at the nearest of the following:
(a)  a traffic sign or road marking on the road that indicates that the first traffic sign no longer applies,
(b)  the next intersection on the road,
(c)  if the road ends at a T-intersection or dead end—the end of the road.
Note 1—
Intersection, road marking, T-intersection and traffic sign are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 322 (1) and (2) deal with the meaning of a traffic sign on a road.
Examples of a traffic sign mentioned in the rule and a traffic sign indicating that the first traffic sign no longer applies—
Trucks use left lane sign
End trucks use left lane sign
Note for diagrams—
There is another permitted version of the trucks use left lane sign—see the diagrams in Schedule 3.
Division 7 Passing trams and safety zones
Note—
Bus, tram, tram tracks and travelling along tram tracks are defined in the dictionary.
160   Passing or overtaking a tram that is not at or near the left side of a road
(1)  This rule applies to a driver driving on a road with tram tracks that are not at or near the far left side of the road.
(2)  The driver must not drive past, or overtake, a tram to the right of the tram.
Offence provision.
Note—
Overtake is defined in the dictionary.
(3)  The driver must not drive past, or overtake, a tram if the tram is turning left or is giving a left change of direction signal, unless the driver is turning left and there is no danger of a collision with the tram.
Offence provision.
Note—
Left change of direction signal is defined in the dictionary.
(4)  In this rule:
tram includes a bus travelling along tram tracks.
161   Passing or overtaking a tram at or near the left side of a road
(1)  This rule applies to a driver driving on a road with tram tracks at or near the far left side of the road.
(2)  The driver must not drive past, or overtake, a tram to the left of the tram unless the driver is turning left and there is no danger of a collision with the tram.
Offence provision.
(3)  The driver must not drive past, or overtake, a tram if the tram is turning right or is giving a right change of direction signal.
Offence provision.
Note—
Right change of direction signal is defined in the dictionary.
(4)  In this rule:
tram includes a bus travelling along tram tracks.
162   Driving past a safety zone
(1)  A driver driving past a safety zone:
(a)  must not drive on the safety zone, and
(b)  must drive to the left of the safety zone at a speed that does not put at risk the safety of any pedestrian crossing the road to or from the safety zone.
Offence provision.
(2)  A safety zone is an area of a road:
(a)  at a place with safety zone signs at or near a tram stop, and
(b)  indicated by a structure on the road (for example, a dividing strip, pedestrian refuge or traffic island).
Note—
Dividing strip and traffic island are defined in the dictionary.
Safety zone sign
163   Driving past the rear of a stopped tram
(1)  A driver must comply with this rule if:
(a)  the driver is driving behind the rear of a tram travelling in the same direction as the driver, and
(b)  the tram stops, except at the far left side of the road, and
(c)  there is no safety zone, dividing strip or traffic island between the tram and the part of the road where the driver is driving.
Offence provision.
Note—
Dividing strip and traffic island are defined in the dictionary, and safety zone is defined in rule 162.
(2)  The driver must not drive past the rear of the tram if a pedestrian is crossing the road between the tram and the far left side of the road.
(3)  The driver may drive past the tram at a speed not over 10 kilometres per hour (or, if another law of this jurisdiction provides for another speed, not over the other speed) if there are no pedestrians crossing the road between the tram and the far left side of the road and:
(a)  if the driver is approaching or at traffic lights—the traffic lights are showing a green traffic light, or a green traffic arrow and the driver is turning in the direction indicated by the arrow, or
(b)  the driver is directed to drive past the tram by an authorised person.
Note 1—
Authorised person is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Part 6 deals with traffic lights.
(4)  In this rule:
tram includes a bus travelling along tram tracks.
164   Giving way to pedestrians crossing the road near a stopped tram
(1)  A driver must comply with this rule if:
(a)  the driver is driving past, or overtaking, a tram travelling in the same direction as the driver, and
(b)  the tram stops, except at the far left side of the road, and
(c)  there is no safety zone, dividing strip or traffic island between the tram and the part of the road where the driver is driving.
Offence provision.
Note—
Dividing strip, overtake and traffic island are defined in the dictionary, and safety zone is defined in rule 162.
(2)  The driver must stop and give way to any pedestrian crossing the road between the tram and the far left side of the road.
Note—
For subrule (2), give way means remain stationary until it is safe to proceed—see the definition in the dictionary.
(3)  If the driver stops to give way to a pedestrian, the driver must not proceed until there is no pedestrian crossing the road between the tram and the far left side of the road.
(4)  If there is no pedestrian crossing the road between the tram and the far left side of the road, the driver may proceed to drive past, or overtake, the tram at a speed not over 10 kilometres per hour (or, if another law of this jurisdiction provides another speed, not over the other speed).
(5)  In this rule:
tram includes a bus travelling along tram tracks.
Part 12 Restrictions on stopping and parking
Division 1 General
Note 1—
For the general rules about the application of traffic signs (including parking control signs), see Part 20, Divisions 2 and 3 especially rules 332 to 335 and 346. Parking control signs often include information about the times they apply and the types of vehicles to which they do not apply—see rules 317 and 318. For the meaning of abbreviations and symbols on parking control signs, see rule 347 and Schedule 1.
Note 2—
Park and stop are defined in the dictionary.
165   Stopping in an emergency etc or to comply with another rule
It is a defence to the prosecution of a driver for an offence against a provision of this Part if:
(a)  the driver stops at a particular place, or in a particular way, to avoid a collision, and the driver stops for no longer than is necessary to avoid the collision, or
(b)  the driver stops at a particular place, or in a particular way, because the driver’s vehicle is disabled, and the driver stops for no longer than is necessary for the vehicle to be moved safely to a place where the driver is permitted to park the vehicle under the Australian Road Rules, or
(c)  the driver stops at a particular place, or in a particular way, to deal with a medical or other emergency, and the driver stops for no longer than is necessary in the circumstances, or
(d)  the driver stops at a particular place, or in a particular way, because the condition of the driver, a passenger, or the driver’s vehicle makes it necessary for the driver to stop in the interests of safety, and the driver stops for no longer than is necessary in the circumstances, or
(e)  the driver stops at a particular place, or in a particular way, to comply with another provision of the Australian Road Rules or a provision of another law, and the driver stops for no longer than is necessary to comply with the other provision.
Example for paragraph (e)—
If a driver stops at an intersection at a stop line, stop sign, or traffic lights, or to give way to a vehicle, in accordance with the Australian Road Rules, the driver does not contravene rule 170 (stopping in or near an intersection).
Note—
Driver’s vehicle is defined in the dictionary.
166   Application of Part to bicycles
This Part does not apply to a bicycle that is parked at a bicycle rail or in a bicycle rack.
Note—
Bicycle is defined in the dictionary.
Division 2 No stopping and no parking signs and road markings
Note 1—
Area, length of road, park and stop are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 165 provides defences to the prosecution of a driver for an offence against a provision of this Division.
167   No stopping signs
A driver must not stop on a length of road or in an area to which a no stopping sign applies.
Offence provision.
Note—
Another law of this jurisdiction may provide transitional arrangements dealing with no standing signs.
No stopping signs
No stopping sign(for a length of road)
No stopping sign(for an area)
Note 1 for diagrams—
There are a number of other permitted versions of these signs—see the diagrams in Schedule 3.
Note 2 for diagrams—
A no stopping sign may have an arrow pointing in a different direction and anything on the sign may be differently arranged—see rule 316 (4).
168   No parking signs
(1)  The driver of a vehicle must not stop on a length of road or in an area to which a no parking sign applies, unless the driver:
(a)  is dropping off, or picking up, passengers or goods, and
(b)  does not leave the vehicle unattended, and
(c)  completes the dropping off, or picking up, of the passengers or goods, and drives on, as soon as possible and, in any case, within the required time after stopping.
Offence provision.
(2)  For this rule, a driver leaves a vehicle unattended if the driver leaves the vehicle so the driver is over 3 metres from the closest point of the vehicle.
(3)  In this rule:
required time means:
(a)  2 minutes, or
(b)  if information on or with the sign indicates another time—the indicated time.
Note—
With is defined in the dictionary.
No parking signs
No parking sign(for a length of road)
No parking sign(for an area)
Note 1 for diagrams—
There are a number of other permitted versions of each of these signs—see the diagrams in Schedule 3.
Note 2 for diagrams—
A no parking sign may have an arrow pointing in a different direction and anything on the sign may be differently arranged—see rule 316 (4).
169   No stopping on a road with a yellow edge line
A driver must not stop at the side of a road marked with a continuous yellow edge line.
Offence provision.
Note—
Edge line is defined in the dictionary.
Division 3 Stopping at intersections and crossings
Note 1—
Area, length of road, park and stop are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 165 provides defences to the prosecution of a driver for an offence against a provision of this Division.
170   Stopping in or near an intersection
(1)  A driver must not stop in an intersection.
Offence provision.
Note—
Intersection is defined in the dictionary.
(2)  A driver must not stop on a road within 20 metres from the nearest point of an intersecting road at an intersection with traffic lights, unless the driver stops at a place on a length of road, or in an area, to which a parking control sign applies and the driver is permitted to stop at that place under the Australian Road Rules.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Parking control sign and traffic lights are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
A driver stops within a particular distance from an intersection if the driver stops so any part of the driver’s vehicle is within that distance—see rule 350 (2).
(3)  A driver must not stop on a road within 10 metres from the nearest point of an intersecting road at an intersection without traffic lights, unless the driver stops:
(a)  at a place on a length of road, or in an area, to which a parking control sign applies and the driver is permitted to stop at that place under the Australian Road Rules, or
(b)  if the intersection is a T-intersection—along the continuous side of the continuing road at the intersection.
Offence provision.
Note—
Continuing road and T-intersection are defined in the dictionary.
(4)  For this rule, distances are measured in the direction in which the driver is driving, and:
(a)  for subrule (2)—as shown in example 1, or
(b)  for subrule (3)—as shown in example 2.
(5)  In this rule:
road does not include a road-related area, but includes any shoulder of the road.
Note—
Road-related area is defined in rule 13, and shoulder is defined in rule 12.
Examples—
Example 1Measurement of distance—intersection with traffic lights
Example 2Measurement of distance—T-intersection without traffic lights
171   Stopping on or near a children’s crossing
(1)  A driver must not stop on a children’s crossing, or on the road within 20 metres before the crossing and 10 metres after the crossing, unless the driver stops at a place on a length of road, or in an area, to which a parking control sign applies and the driver is permitted to stop at that place under the Australian Road Rules.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Children’s crossing is defined in rule 80, and parking control sign is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
A driver stops within a particular distance from a children’s crossing if the driver stops so any part of the driver’s vehicle is within that distance—see rule 350 (2).
(2)  For this rule, distances are measured:
(a)  in the direction in which the driver is driving, and
(b)  as shown in example 1 or 2.
(3)  In this rule:
road does not include a road-related area, but includes any shoulder of the road.
Note—
Road-related area is defined in rule 13, and shoulder is defined in rule 12.
Examples—
Example 1Measurement of distance—children’s crossing with red and white posts
Example 2Measurement of distance—children’s crossing with 2 parallel continuous or broken lines
172   Stopping on or near a pedestrian crossing (except at an intersection)
(1)  A driver must not stop on a pedestrian crossing that is not at an intersection, or on the road within 20 metres before the crossing and 10 metres after the crossing, unless the driver stops at a place on a length of road, or in an area, to which a parking control sign applies and the driver is permitted to stop at that place under the Australian Road Rules.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Intersection and parking control sign are defined in the dictionary, and pedestrian crossing is defined in rule 81.
Note 2—
A driver stops within a particular distance from a crossing if the driver stops so any part of the driver’s vehicle is within that distance—see rule 350 (2).
(2)  For this rule, distances are measured:
(a)  in the direction in which the driver is driving, and
(b)  as shown in the example.
(3)  In this rule:
road does not include a road-related area, but includes any shoulder of the road.
Note—
Road-related area is defined in rule 13, and shoulder is defined in rule 12.
Example—
Measurement of distance—pedestrian crossing
173   Stopping on or near a marked foot crossing (except at an intersection)
(1)  A driver must not stop on a marked foot crossing that is not at an intersection, or on the road within 10 metres before the traffic lights pole nearest to the driver at the crossing and 3 metres after the crossing, unless the driver stops at a place on a length of road, or in an area, to which a parking control sign applies and the driver is permitted to stop at that place under the Australian Road Rules.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Intersection, marked foot crossing, parking control sign and traffic lights pole are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
A driver stops within a particular distance from a traffic lights pole or a crossing if the driver stops so any part of the driver’s vehicle is within that distance—see rule 350 (2).
(2)  For this rule, distances are measured:
(a)  in the direction in which the driver is driving, and
(b)  as shown in the example.
(3)  In this rule:
road does not include a road-related area, but includes any shoulder of the road.
Note—
Road-related area is defined in rule 13, and shoulder is defined in rule 12.
Example—
Measurement of distance—marked foot crossing
174   Stopping at or near bicycle crossing lights (except at an intersection)
(1)  This rule applies to a place on a road:
(a)  with bicycle crossing lights facing bicycle riders crossing the road, and
(b)  with traffic lights facing traffic travelling on the road, and
(c)  that is not at an intersection.
Note—
Bicycle crossing lights, intersection and traffic lights are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  A driver must not stop within 10 metres before the traffic lights nearest to the driver at the place, and 3 metres after the traffic lights, unless the driver stops at a place on a length of road, or in an area, to which a parking control sign applies and the driver is permitted to stop at that place under the Australian Road Rules.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Parking control sign is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
A driver stops within a particular distance from traffic lights if the driver stops so any part of the driver’s vehicle is within that distance—see rule 350 (2).
(3)  For this rule, distances are measured:
(a)  in the direction in which the driver is driving, and
(b)  as shown in the example.
(4)  In this rule:
road does not include a road-related area, but includes any shoulder of the road.
Note—
Road-related area is defined in rule 13, and shoulder is defined in rule 12.
Example—
Measurement of distance—bicycle crossing lights
175   Stopping on or near a level crossing
(1)  A driver must not stop on a level crossing, or on a road within 20 metres before the nearest rail or track to the driver approaching the crossing and 20 metres after the nearest rail or track to the driver leaving the crossing, unless the driver stops at a place on a length of road, or in an area, to which a parking control sign applies and the driver is permitted to stop at that place under the Australian Road Rules.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Level crossing is defined in rule 120, and parking control sign is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
A driver stops within a particular distance from a level crossing if the driver stops so any part of the driver’s vehicle is within that distance—see rule 350 (2).
(2)  For this rule, distances are measured as shown in the example.
(3)  In this rule:
road does not include a road-related area, but includes any shoulder of the road.
Note—
Road-related area is defined in rule 13, and shoulder is defined in rule 12.
Example—
Measurement of distance—level crossing
Division 4 Stopping on clearways and freeways and in emergency stopping lanes
Note 1—
Area, length of road, park and stop are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 165 provides defences to the prosecution of a driver for an offence against a provision of this Division.
176   Stopping on a clearway
(1)  A driver must not stop on a length of road to which a clearway sign applies, unless subrule (2) or (3) applies to the driver.
Offence provision.
(2)  The driver of a public bus or public minibus may stop on the length of road if the driver is dropping off, or picking up, passengers.
Note—
Public bus and public minibus are defined in the dictionary.
(3)  The driver of a taxi may stop on the length of road if:
(a)  the driver is dropping off, or picking up, passengers, and
(b)  there is not another law of this jurisdiction prohibiting the driver of a taxi from stopping on a length of road to which a clearway sign applies.
Note—
Taxi is defined in the dictionary.
(4)  If a clearway sign on a road indicates the days or times when it applies, the sign applies to the length of road beginning at the sign and ending at the nearer of the following:
(a)  a clearway sign on the road that indicates different days or times,
(b)  an end clearway sign on the road.
(5)  If a clearway sign on a road does not indicate the days or times when it applies, the sign applies to the length of road beginning at the sign and ending at the nearer of the following:
(a)  a clearway sign on the road that indicates the days or times when it applies,
(b)  an end clearway sign on the road.
Clearway sign
End clearway sign
Note for diagrams—
Anything on these signs may be differently arranged—see rule 316 (4).
177   Stopping on a freeway
(1)  A driver must not stop on a freeway unless:
(a)  the driver stops in an emergency stopping lane, or
(b)  the driver’s vehicle is permitted to stop on the freeway under another law of this jurisdiction.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Driver’s vehicle is defined in the dictionary, and emergency stopping lane is defined in rule 95.
Note 2—
Rule 178 sets out when a driver can stop in an emergency stopping lane.
(2)  A freeway is a length of road to which a freeway sign applies.
(3)  A freeway sign on a road applies to a length of road beginning at the sign (including any road into which the length of road merges) and ending at the next end freeway sign on the road.
Freeway signs
End freeway sign
Note for diagrams—
There are a number of other permitted versions of each of these signs—see the diagrams in Schedule 3.
178   Stopping in an emergency stopping lane
A driver (except the rider of a bicycle) must not stop in an emergency stopping lane unless:
(a)  the condition of the driver, a passenger or the driver’s vehicle, or any other factor, makes it necessary or desirable for the driver to stop in the emergency stopping lane in the interests of safety, and the driver stops for no longer than is necessary in the circumstances, or
(b)  the driver is permitted to stop in the emergency stopping lane under another law of this jurisdiction.
Offence provision.
Note—
Bicycle and driver’s vehicle are defined in the dictionary, and emergency stopping lane is defined in rule 95.
Division 5 Stopping in zones for particular vehicles
Note 1—
Area, length of road, park and stop are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 165 provides defences to the prosecution of a driver for an offence against a provision of this Division.
Note 3—
The signs mentioned in this Division are particular types of parking control sign (defined in the dictionary) to which the general rules about the application of parking control signs apply—see rules 332 to 335.
179   Stopping in a loading zone
(1)  A driver must not stop in a loading zone unless the driver is driving:
(a)  a public bus that is dropping off, or picking up, passengers, or
(b)  a truck that is dropping off, or picking up, goods, or
(c)  a vehicle that is permitted to stop in the loading zone under another law of this jurisdiction.
Offence provision.
Note—
Public bus and truck are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  A driver who is permitted to stop in a loading zone must not stay continuously in the zone for longer than:
(a)  30 minutes, or
(b)  if information on or with the loading zone signs applying to the loading zone indicates another time—the indicated time.
Offence provision.
Note—
With is defined in the dictionary.
(3)  A loading zone is a length of a road to which a loading zone sign applies.
Loading zone sign
Note 1 for diagram—
There are a number of other permitted versions of this sign—see the diagrams in Schedule 3.
Note 2 for diagram—
A loading zone sign may have an arrow pointing in a different direction and anything on the sign may be differently arranged—see rule 316 (4).
180   Stopping in a truck zone
(1)  A driver must not stop in a truck zone unless the driver is driving:
(a)  a truck that is dropping off, or picking up, goods, or
(b)  a vehicle that is permitted to stop in the truck zone under another law of this jurisdiction.
Offence provision.
Note—
Truck is defined in the dictionary.
(2)  A truck zone is a length of a road to which a truck zone sign applies.
Truck zone sign
Note 1 for diagram—
There is another permitted version of this sign—see the diagram in Schedule 3.
Note 2 for diagram—
A truck zone sign may have an arrow pointing in a different direction and anything on the sign may be differently arranged—see rule 316 (4).
181   Stopping in a works zone
(1)  A driver must not stop in a works zone unless the driver is driving a vehicle that is:
(a)  engaged in construction work in or near the zone, or
(b)  permitted to stop in the works zone under another law of this jurisdiction.
Offence provision.
(2)  A works zone is a length of a road to which a works zone sign applies.
Works zone sign
Note 1 for diagram—
There is another permitted version of this sign—see the diagram in Schedule 3.
Note 2 for diagram—
A works zone sign may have an arrow pointing in a different direction and anything on the sign may be differently arranged—see rule 316 (4).
182   Stopping in a taxi zone
(1)  A driver must not stop in a taxi zone, unless the driver is driving a taxi.
Offence provision.
Note—
Taxi is defined in the dictionary.
(2)  A taxi zone is a length of a road to which a taxi zone sign applies.
Taxi zone sign
Note 1 for diagram—
There are a number of other permitted versions of this sign—see the diagrams in Schedule 3.
Note 2 for diagram—
A taxi zone sign may have an arrow pointing in a different direction and anything on the sign may be differently arranged—see rule 316 (4).
183   Stopping in a bus zone
(1)  A driver must not stop in a bus zone unless the driver is driving a public bus (except a public bus of a kind that is not permitted to stop in the bus zone by information on or with the bus zone sign applying to the bus zone).
Offence provision.
Note—
Public bus and with are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  A bus zone is a length of a road to which a bus zone sign applies.
Bus zone sign
Note 1 for diagram—
There are a number of other permitted versions of this sign—see the diagrams in Schedule 3.
Note 2 for diagram—
A bus zone sign may have an arrow pointing in a different direction and anything on the sign may be differently arranged—see rule 316 (4).
184   Stopping in a minibus zone
(1)  A driver (except the driver of a public minibus) must not stop in a minibus zone.
Offence provision.
Note—
Public minibus is defined in the dictionary.
(2)  A minibus zone is a length of road to which a minibus zone sign applies.
Minibus zone sign
Note for diagram—
A minibus zone sign may have an arrow pointing in a different direction and anything on the sign may be differently arranged—see rule 316 (4).
185   Stopping in a permit zone
(1)  A driver must not stop in a permit zone unless the driver’s vehicle displays a current permit issued under another law of this jurisdiction that permits the vehicle to stop in the zone.
Offence provision.
Note—
Driver’s vehicle is defined in the dictionary.
(2)  A permit zone is a length of a road to which a permit zone sign applies.
Permit zone sign
Note 1 for diagram—
There are a number of other permitted versions of this sign—see the diagrams in Schedule 3.
Note 2 for diagram—
A permit zone sign may have an arrow pointing in a different direction and anything on the sign may be differently arranged—see rule 316 (4).
186   Stopping in a mail zone
(1)  A driver must not stop in a mail zone.
Offence provision.
(2)  A mail zone is a length of a road to which a mail zone sign applies.
Note—
Exemptions for drivers of postal vehicles may be provided under rule 313.
Mail zone sign
Note for diagram—
A mail zone sign may have an arrow pointing in a different direction and anything on the sign may be differently arranged—see rule 316 (4).
Division 6 Other places where stopping is restricted
Note 1—
Area, length of road, park and stop are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 165 provides defences to the prosecution of a driver for an offence against a provision of this Division.
187   Stopping in a bicycle lane, bus lane, tram lane, transit lane, truck lane or on tram tracks
(1)  A driver must not stop in a bus lane, transit lane or truck lane unless the driver:
(a)  is driving a public bus, public minibus or taxi, and is dropping off or picking up, passengers, and
(b)  is permitted to drive in the lane under the Australian Road Rules or another law of this jurisdiction.
Offence provision.
(2)  A driver must not stop in a bicycle lane unless:
(a)  the driver:
(i)  is driving a public bus, public minibus or taxi, and is dropping off or picking up, passengers, and
(ii)  is permitted to drive in the lane under the Australian Road Rules or another law of this jurisdiction, or
(b)  the driver is permitted to stop or park in the bicycle lane under another law of this jurisdiction.
Offence provision.
(3)  A driver (except the driver of a tram or a public bus) must not stop in a tram lane, or on tram tracks.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Bicycle lane is defined in rule 153, bus lane is defined in rule 154, tram lane is defined in rule 155, transit lane is defined in rule 156, truck lane is defined in rule 157, and public bus, public minibus, taxi, tram and tram tracks are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 76 deals with drivers keeping clear of trams travelling in tram lanes or on tram tracks marked on each side by a yellow line.
Note 3—
Part 11, Division 6 deals with driving in bicycle lanes, bus lanes, tram lanes, transit lanes and truck lanes.
188   Stopping in a shared zone
A driver must not stop in a shared zone unless:
(a)  the driver stops at a place on a length of road, or in an area, to which a parking control sign applies and the driver is permitted to stop at that place under the Australian Road Rules, or
(b)  the driver stops in a parking bay and the driver is permitted to stop in the parking bay under the Australian Road Rules, or
(c)  the driver is dropping off, or picking up, passengers or goods, or
(d)  the driver is engaged in the door-to-door delivery or collection of goods, or in the collection of waste or garbage.
Offence provision.
Note—
Parking bay and parking control sign are defined in the dictionary, and shared zone is defined in rule 24.
189   Double parking
(1)  A driver must not stop on a road:
(a)  if the road is a two-way road—between the centre of the road and another vehicle that is parked at the side of the road, or
(b)  if the road is a one-way road—between the far side of the road and another vehicle that is parked at the side of the road.
Offence provision.
Note—
One-way road and two-way road are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  A driver does not contravene this rule by parking on the side of the road, or in a median strip parking area, in accordance with rule 210.
Note—
Median strip parking area is defined in the dictionary.
Examples—
Example 1
Example 2
In example 1, the vehicle marked with an “X” is stopped in contravention of this rule.
In example 2, the angle parked vehicles are not stopped in contravention of this rule.
190   Stopping in or near a safety zone
(1)  A driver must not stop in a safety zone, or on a road within 10 metres before or after a safety zone, unless the driver stops at a place on a length of road, or in an area, to which a parking control sign applies and the driver is permitted to stop at that place under the Australian Road Rules.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Parking control sign is defined in the dictionary, and safety zone is defined in rule 162.
Note 2—
A driver stops within a particular distance before or after something if the driver stops so any part of the vehicle is within that distance—see rule 350 (2).
(2)  For this rule, distances are measured:
(a)  in the direction in which the driver is driving, and
(b)  from the end of the structure, and
(c)  as shown in the example.
(3)  In this rule:
road does not include a road-related area, but includes any shoulder of the road.
Note—
Road-related area is defined in rule 13, and shoulder is defined in rule 12.
Safety zone sign
Example—
Measurement of distance—safety zone
In the example, the vehicles marked with an “X” are stopped in contravention of this rule.
191   Stopping near an obstruction
A driver must not stop on a road near an obstruction on the road in a position that obstructs traffic on the road.
Offence provision.
Note—
Obstruction is defined in the dictionary.
192   Stopping on a bridge or in a tunnel etc
(1)  A driver must not stop on a bridge, causeway, ramp or similar structure unless:
(a)  the road is at least as wide on the structure as it is on each of the approaches, or
(b)  the driver stops at a place on a length of road, or in an area, to which a parking control sign applies and the driver is permitted to stop at that place under the Australian Road Rules.
Offence provision.
Note—
Parking control sign is defined in the dictionary.
(2)  A driver must not stop in a tunnel or underpass unless:
(a)  the road is at least as wide in the tunnel or underpass as it is on each of the approaches, or
(b)  the driver stops at a place on a length of road, or in an area, to which a parking control sign applies and the driver is permitted to stop at that place under the Australian Road Rules.
Offence provision.
Example—
Stopping on a bridge where the road on the bridge is narrower than on an approach
In the example, the vehicle is stopped in contravention of subrule (1).
193   Stopping on a crest or curve outside a built-up area
(1)  A driver must not stop on or near a crest or curve on a length of road that is not in a built-up area unless:
(a)  the driver’s vehicle is visible for 100 metres to drivers approaching the vehicle and travelling in the direction of travel of traffic on the same side of the road as the vehicle, or
(b)  the driver stops at a place on a length of road, or in an area, to which a parking control sign applies and the driver is permitted to stop at that place under the Australian Road Rules.
Offence provision.
Note—
Built-up area, driver’s vehicle and parking control sign are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  In this rule:
road does not include a road-related area, but includes any shoulder of the road.
Note—
Road-related area is defined in rule 13, and shoulder is defined in rule 12.
194   Stopping near a fire hydrant etc
(1)  A driver must not stop within 1 metre of a fire hydrant, fire hydrant indicator, or fire plug indicator, unless:
(a)  the driver is driving a public bus, and the driver stops at a bus stop or in a bus zone and does not leave the bus unattended, or
(b)  the driver is driving a taxi, and the driver stops in a taxi zone and does not leave the taxi unattended, or
(c)  the driver is driving a public minibus, and the driver stops in a minibus zone and does not leave the minibus unattended.
Offence provision.
Note—
Bus zone is defined in rule 183, public bus, public minibus and taxi are defined in the dictionary, minibus zone is defined in rule 184, and taxi zone is defined in rule 182.
(2)  For this rule, a driver leaves a vehicle unattended if the driver leaves the vehicle so the driver is over 3 metres from the closest point of the vehicle.
(3)  In this rule:
fire hydrant means an upright pipe with a spout, nozzle or other outlet for drawing water from a main or service pipe in case of fire or other emergency.
Examples—
Fire hydrant indicators
Fire plug indicator
195   Stopping at or near a bus stop
(1)  A driver (except the driver of a public bus) must not stop at a bus stop, or on the road, within 20 metres before a sign on the road that indicates the bus stop, and 10 metres after the sign, unless the driver stops at a place on a length of road, or in an area, to which a parking control sign applies and the driver is permitted to stop at that place under the Australian Road Rules.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Parking control sign and public bus are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
A driver stops within a particular distance before or after a sign indicating a bus stop if the driver stops so any part of the driver’s vehicle is within that distance—see rule 350 (2).
(2)  For this rule, distances are measured in the direction in which the driver is driving.
(3)  In this rule:
road does not include a road-related area, but includes any shoulder of the road.
Note—
Road-related area is defined in rule 13, and shoulder is defined in rule 12.
196   Stopping at or near a tram stop
(1)  A driver (except the driver of a tram or a public bus travelling along tram tracks) must not stop at a tram stop or on the road within 10 metres before a sign on the road displaying the words “tram stop” or “tram stop request”.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Public bus, tram and travelling along tram tracks are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
A driver stops within a particular distance before a sign indicating a tram stop if the driver stops so any part of the driver’s vehicle is within that distance—see rule 350 (2).
(2)  For this rule, the distance is measured in the direction in which the driver is driving.
(3)  In this rule:
road does not include a road-related area, but includes any shoulder of the road.
Note—
Road-related area is defined in rule 13, and shoulder is defined in rule 12.
197   Stopping on a path, dividing strip or nature strip
(1)  A driver must not stop on a bicycle path, footpath, shared path or dividing strip, or a nature strip adjacent to a length of road in a built-up area, unless:
(a)  the driver stops at a place on a length of road, or in an area, to which a parking control sign applies and the driver is permitted to stop at that place under the Australian Road Rules, or
(b)  the driver is permitted to stop under another law of this jurisdiction.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Bicycle path is defined in rule 239, built-up area, dividing strip, footpath, nature strip and parking control sign are defined in the dictionary, and shared path is defined in rule 242.
Note 2—
A separated footpath is a particular kind of footpath—see rule 239.
(2)  This rule does not apply to the rider of a bicycle or animal.
Note—
Bicycle is defined in the dictionary.
198   Obstructing access to and from a footpath, driveway etc
(1)  A driver must not stop on a road in a position that obstructs access by vehicles or pedestrians to or from a footpath ramp or a similar way of access to a footpath, or a bicycle path or passageway unless:
(a)  the driver is driving a public bus that is dropping off, or picking up, passengers, or
(b)  the driver stops in a parking bay and the driver is permitted to stop in the parking bay under the Australian Road Rules.
Offence provision.
Note—
Bicycle path is defined in rule 239, and footpath, parking bay and public bus are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  A driver must not stop on or across a driveway or other way of access for vehicles travelling to or from adjacent land unless:
(a)  the driver is dropping off, or picking up, passengers, or
(b)  the driver stops in a parking bay and the driver is permitted to stop in the parking bay under the Australian Road Rules.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Adjacent land is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
A driver stops on or across a driveway or way of access if any part of the vehicle is on or across the driveway or way of access—see rule 350.
Example—
Blocking a driveway
In the example, the vehicle marked with an “X” is stopped in contravention of subrule (2).
199   Stopping near a postbox
(1)  A driver must not stop on a road within 3 metres of a public postbox, unless the driver:
(a)  is dropping off, or picking up, passengers or mail, or
(b)  stops at a place on a length of road, or in an area, to which a parking control sign applies and the driver is permitted to stop at that place under the Australian Road Rules.
Offence provision.
Note—
Parking control sign is defined in the dictionary.
(2)  In this rule:
public postbox means a structure that is declared to be a public postbox, for the Australian Road Rules, under another law of this jurisdiction.
200   Stopping on roads—heavy and long vehicles
(1)  The driver of a heavy vehicle, or long vehicle, must not stop on a length of road that is not in a built-up area, except on the shoulder of the road.
Offence provision.
Note—
Built-up area is defined in the dictionary, and shoulder is defined in rule 12.
(2)  The driver of a heavy vehicle, or long vehicle, must not stop on a length of road in a built-up area for longer than 1 hour, unless the driver is permitted to stop on the length of road for longer than 1 hour by information on or with a traffic control device, or under another law of this jurisdiction.
Offence provision.
Note—
Traffic control device and with are defined in the dictionary.
(3)  In this rule:
heavy vehicle means a vehicle with a GVM of 4.5 tonnes or more.
long vehicle means a vehicle that, together with any load or projection, is 7.5 metres long, or longer.
road does not include a road-related area, but includes any shoulder of the road.
Note 1—
GVM is defined in the dictionary, road-related area is defined in rule 13, and shoulder is defined in rule 12.
Note 2—
Vehicle includes a combination—see rule 15 (d).
201   Stopping on a road with bicycle parking sign
A driver (except the rider of a bicycle) must not stop on a length of road to which a bicycle parking sign applies, unless the driver is dropping off, or picking up, passengers.
Offence provision.
Note—
Bicycle is defined in the dictionary.
Bicycle parking sign
Note for diagram—
Anything on this sign may be differently arranged—see rule 316 (4).
202   Stopping on a road with motor bike parking sign
A driver (except the rider of a motor bike) must not stop on a length of road to which a motor bike parking sign applies, unless the driver is dropping off, or picking up, passengers.
Offence provision.
Note—
Motor bike is defined in the dictionary.
Motor bike parking sign
Note for diagram—
Anything on this sign may be differently arranged—see rule 316 (4).
203   Stopping in a parking area for people with disabilities
(1)  A driver must not stop in a parking area for people with disabilities unless:
(a)  the driver’s vehicle displays a current parking permit for people with disabilities, and
(b)  the driver complies with the conditions of use of the permit.
Offence provision.
Note—
Driver’s vehicle and parking permit for people with disabilities are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  A parking area for people with disabilities is a length or area of a road:
(a)  to which a permissive parking sign displaying a people with disabilities symbol applies, or
(b)  to which a people with disabilities parking sign applies, or
(c)  indicated by a road marking (a people with disabilities road marking) that consists of, or includes, a people with disabilities symbol.
People with disabilities symbols
Permissive parking sign displaying a people with disabilities symbol(for a length of road)
Permissive parking sign displaying a people with disabilities symbol(for an area)
People with disabilities parking sign
Note for diagrams—
Anything on these signs may be differently arranged—see rule 316 (4).
Division 7 Permissive parking signs and parking fees
Note 1—
Area, length of road, park and stop are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 165 provides defences to the prosecution of a driver for an offence against a provision of this Division.
204   Meaning of certain information on or with permissive parking signs
(1)  This rule explains the meaning of certain information on or with a permissive parking sign applying to a length of road or an area.
Note—
With is defined in the dictionary.
Permissive parking sign(for a length of road)
Permissive parking sign(for an area)
Permissive parking sign(for a length of road)
Note 1 for diagrams—
There are a number of other permitted versions of each of these signs—see the diagrams in Schedule 3.
Note 2 for diagrams—
A permissive parking sign may have an arrow pointing in a different direction and anything on the sign may be differently arranged—see rule 316 (4).
Note—
Rule 318 (1) and (2) deal with the effect of information on or with a traffic control device (including a permissive parking sign) that limits the application of the device to particular times or days. Under rule 318 (3), if the information indicates that the device applies on a particular day, for example Friday, the sign does not have effect on a Friday that is a public holiday unless otherwise stated.
(2)  A whole number, fraction, or whole number and fraction, immediately to the left of the letter “P” indicates that a driver must not park on the length of road, or in the area, continuously for longer than the period of hours, or fraction of an hour, equal to the number, fraction, or number and fraction, shown.
Examples of permissive parking signs showing permitted parking periods and times of operation—
Example 1Permissive parking sign applying to a length of road with a whole number to the left of P
Example 2Permissive parking sign applying to an area with a whole number to the left of P
In example 1, the sign indicates that a driver must not park continuously for longer than 1 hour on Saturdays between 9 am and 12 noon.
In example 2, the sign indicates that a driver must not park in the area for longer than 2 hours on Mondays to Fridays between 8.30 am and 5 pm, and on Saturdays between 8.30 am and 12 noon, unless permitted by information on or with another traffic control device.
(3)  A number, together with the word “minute”, immediately to the right of the letter “P” indicate that a driver must not park on the length of road, or in the area, continuously for longer than the number of minutes shown.
Example—
Example 3Permissive parking sign with a number of minutes to the right of P
In this example, the sign indicates that a driver must not park continuously for longer than 5 minutes on Mondays to Fridays between 9 am and 4 pm.
(4)  The word “parking”, together with words indicating a number of hours or minutes, indicate that a driver must not park on the length of road, or in the area, continuously for longer than the number of hours or minutes shown.
205   Parking for longer than indicated
A driver must not park continuously on a length of road, or in an area, to which a permissive parking sign applies for longer than the period indicated by information on or with the sign or, if rule 206 applies to the driver, the period allowed under that rule.
Offence provision.
Note—
With is defined in the dictionary.
206   Time extension for people with disabilities
(1)  This rule applies to a driver:
(a)  if the driver’s vehicle displays a current parking permit for people with disabilities, and
(b)  the driver complies with the conditions of use of the permit.
Note—
Driver’s vehicle and parking permit for people with disabilities are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  The driver may park continuously on a length of road, or in an area, to which a permissive parking sign applies (except in a parking area for people with disabilities) for:
(a)  twice the period indicated on the sign, or
(b)  if another law of this jurisdiction permits the driver to park for a longer period—the longer period, or
(c)  if another law of this jurisdiction permits the driver to park for an unlimited period—an unlimited period.
Note—
Parking area for people with disabilities is defined in rule 203.
207   Parking where fees are payable
(1)  This rule applies to a driver who parks on a length of road, or in an area, to which a permissive parking sign applies if information on or with the sign indicates that a fee is payable for parking by buying a ticket or putting money into a parking meter.
Note—
With is defined in the dictionary.
(2)  The driver must:
(a)  pay the fee (if any) payable under the law of this jurisdiction, and
(b)  obey any instructions on or with the sign, meter, ticket or ticket-vending machine.
Offence provision.
Division 8 Parallel parking
Note 1—
Area, length of road, park and stop are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 165 provides defences to the prosecution of a driver for an offence against a provision of this Division.
208   Parallel parking on a road (except in a median strip parking area)
(1)  A driver who parks on a road (except in a median strip parking area) must position the driver’s vehicle in accordance with subrules (2) to (8).
Offence provision.
Note—
Driver’s vehicle and median strip parking area are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  The driver must position the vehicle to face in the direction of travel of vehicles in the marked lane or line of traffic on, or next to, the part of the road where the driver parks.
Note—
Marked lane is defined in the dictionary.
(3)  If the road is a two-way road, the driver must position the vehicle parallel, and as near as practicable, to the far left side of the road.
Note—
Two-way road is defined in the dictionary.
(4)  If the road is a one-way road, the driver must position the vehicle parallel, and as near as practicable, to the far left or far right side of the road, unless otherwise indicated by information on or with a parking control sign.
Note—
One-way road, parking control sign and with are defined in the dictionary.
(5)  If the driver does not park in a parking bay, the driver must position the vehicle at least 1 metre from the closest point of any vehicle in front of it and any vehicle behind it.
Note—
Parking bay is defined in the dictionary.
(6)  If the road has a continuous dividing line or a dividing strip, the driver must position the vehicle at least 3 metres from any dividing line or dividing strip, unless otherwise indicated by information on or with a parking control sign.
Note—
Dividing line and dividing strip are defined in the dictionary.
(7)  If the road does not have a continuous dividing line or a dividing strip, the driver must position the vehicle so there is at least 3 metres of the road alongside the vehicle that is clear for other vehicles to pass, unless otherwise indicated by information on or with a parking control sign.
(8)  The driver must position the vehicle so the vehicle does not unreasonably obstruct the path of other vehicles or pedestrians.
(9)  This rule does not apply to:
(a)  a driver if the driver parks on a length of road, or in an area, to which a parking control sign or road marking applies, and information on or with the sign or road marking includes the words “angle parking” or “angle”, or
(b)  the rider of a motor bike if the rider parks the motor bike on a length of road, or in an area, to which a permissive parking sign applies and the sign indicates that the length of road or area is for parking motor bikes.
Note 1—
Motor bike and road marking are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Division 9 deals with angle parking.
(10)  Subrules (3) and (4) do not apply to the rider of a motor bike if the rider positions the motor bike so at least 1 wheel is as near as practicable to the far left or far right side of the road.
(11)  If a road has one or more service roads, the part of the road used by the main body of moving vehicles, and each service road, is taken to be a separate road for this rule.
Note—
Part of the road used by the main body of moving vehicles and service road are defined in the dictionary.
(12)  In this rule:
continuous dividing line means:
(a)  a single continuous dividing line only, or
(b)  a single continuous dividing line to the left or right of a broken dividing line, or
(c)  2 parallel continuous dividing lines.
road does not include a road-related area, but includes any shoulder of the road.
Note—
Road-related area is defined in rule 13, and shoulder is defined in rule 12.
Example—
Parallel parking—minimum distance from other vehicles and dividing strip
In the example, the vehicles marked with an “X” are parked in contravention of this rule.
209   Parallel parking in a median strip parking area
(1)  This rule applies to a driver who parks in a median strip parking area if a parking control sign or road marking applies to the area, and information on or with the sign or road marking indicates that the driver’s vehicle must be positioned parallel to the median strip.
Note—
Driver’s vehicle, median strip, median strip parking area, parking control sign, road marking and with are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  The driver must position the driver’s vehicle:
(a)  to face in the direction of travel of vehicles in the marked lane or line of traffic to the left of the driver, and
(b)  parallel, and as near as practicable, to the centre of the median strip, and
(c)  if the driver does not park in a parking bay—at least 1 metre from the closest point of any vehicle in front of it and any vehicle behind it.
Offence provision.
Note—
Marked lane and parking bay are defined in the dictionary.
(3)  This rule does not apply to the rider of a motor bike.
Note—
Motor bike is defined in the dictionary.
Division 9 Angle parking
Note 1—
Park and stop are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 165 provides defences to the prosecution of a driver for an offence against a provision of this Division.
210   Angle parking
(1)  If a driver parks in a parking area on the side of a road, or in a median strip parking area, to which a parking control sign or road marking applies, and information on or with the sign or road marking includes the words “angle parking” or “angle”, the driver must position the driver’s vehicle in accordance with subrules (2) to (4).
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Driver’s vehicle, median strip parking area, parking area, parking control sign, road marking and with are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 212 deals with whether a driver enters a median strip parking area forwards or in reverse.
(2)  If information on or with the parking control sign or road marking indicates that the vehicle must be positioned at an angle of 45°, or does not indicate another angle, the driver must position the driver’s vehicle:
(a)  so the vehicle is at an angle as near as practicable to 45°, as shown in example 1 or 2, and
(b)  if the vehicle is parked on the side of the road—with the rear of the vehicle nearest to traffic in the marked lane or line of traffic next to the part of the road where the driver parks.
Note—
Marked lane is defined in the dictionary.
Examples—
Example 1Parking at 45° at the side of a two-way road
Example 2Parking at 45° at the right side of a one-way road
(3)  If information on or with the parking control sign or road marking indicates that the vehicle must be positioned at an angle of 90°, the driver:
(a)  must position the driver’s vehicle so the vehicle is at an angle as near as practicable to 90°, as shown in example 3 or 4, and
(b)  if the vehicle is parked on the side of the road—may position the vehicle with either the front or rear of the vehicle nearest to traffic in the marked lane or line of traffic next to the part of the road where the driver parks.
Examples—
Example 3Parking at 90° at the side of a two-way road
Example 4Parking at 90° at the right side of a one-way road
(4)  If information on or with the parking control sign or road marking indicates that the vehicle must be positioned at an angle of 135°, the driver must position the driver’s vehicle:
(a)  so the vehicle is at an angle as near as practicable to 135°, as shown in example 5 or 6, and
(b)  if the vehicle is parked on the side of the road—with the front of the vehicle nearest to traffic in the marked lane or line of traffic next to the part of the road where the driver parks.
Examples—
Example 5Parking at 135° at the side of a road
Example 6Parking at 135° in a median strip parking area
(5)  This rule does not apply to the rider of a motor bike.
Note—
Motor bike is defined in the dictionary.
Division 10 Other parking related rules
Note 1—
Area, length of road, park and stop are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 165 provides defences to the prosecution of a driver for an offence against a provision of this Division.
211   Parking in parking bays
(1)  A driver must not park on a length of road, or in an area, to which a park in bays only sign applies, except in a parking bay.
Offence provision.
Note—
Parking bay is defined in the dictionary.
(2)  A driver who parks in a parking bay must position the driver’s vehicle completely within the bay, unless the vehicle is too wide or long to fit completely within the bay.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Driver’s vehicle is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Vehicle includes a combination—see rule 15 (d).
(3)  If the vehicle is too wide or long to fit completely within a single parking bay, the driver must park the driver’s vehicle within the minimum number of parking bays needed to park the vehicle.
Offence provision.
Park in bays only sign
212   Entering and leaving a median strip parking area
(1)  If information on or with a traffic control device indicates that a driver must enter or leave a median strip parking area in a particular direction, the driver must enter or leave the area in that direction.
Offence provision.
Note—
Median strip parking area, traffic control device and with are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  If there is no information on or with a traffic control device that indicates that a driver must enter or leave a median strip parking area in a particular direction, the driver must enter or leave the area by driving forward.
Offence provision.
Example—
Leaving median strip parking area by driving forward
213   Making a motor vehicle secure
(1)  This rule applies to the driver of a motor vehicle who stops and leaves the vehicle on a road (except to pay a fee for parking the vehicle) so the driver is over 3 metres from the closest part of the vehicle if there is nobody 16 years old, or older, in the vehicle.
Note—
Motor vehicle is defined in the dictionary.
(2)  Before leaving the motor vehicle, the driver must comply with this rule, except so far as the driver is exempt from this rule under another law of this jurisdiction.
Offence provision.
(3)  The driver must:
(a)  switch off the engine, and
(b)  apply the parking brake effectively or, if weather conditions (for example, snow) would prevent the effective operation of the parking brake, effectively restrain the motor vehicle’s movement in another way.
(4)  If there is nobody in the motor vehicle, the driver must:
(a)  remove the ignition key, and
(b)  if the doors of the vehicle can be locked—lock the doors.
Part 13 Lights and warning devices
Division 1 Lights on vehicles (except bicycles, animals and animal-drawn vehicles)
214   Division does not apply to riders of bicycles, animals or animal-drawn vehicles
This Division does not apply to the rider of a bicycle, animal or animal-drawn vehicle.
Note 1—
Bicycle is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
The rules for using lights when riding a bicycle or an animal-drawn vehicle at night, or in hazardous weather conditions, are:
  for riders of bicycles—rule 259
  for riders of animal-drawn vehicles—rule 223.
215   Using lights when driving at night or in hazardous weather conditions
(1)  A driver must not drive at night, or in hazardous weather conditions causing reduced visibility unless:
(a)  the headlights, tail lights and number plate light fitted to the driver’s vehicle are operating effectively and are clearly visible, and
(b)  if the vehicle is fitted with clearance lights or side marker lights—those lights are operating effectively and are clearly visible.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Driver’s vehicle and night are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Drive includes be in control of—see the definition in the dictionary.
(2)  However, this rule does not apply to a driver if the driver’s vehicle is stopped or parked at a place on a length of road, or in an area, to which a parking control sign applies and the driver is permitted to stop or park at that place under the Australian Road Rules.
Note—
Length of road and parking control sign are defined in the dictionary.
(3)  Also, a driver driving during the day in fog, or other hazardous weather conditions causing reduced visibility, may drive without the headlights of the driver’s vehicle operating if the vehicle is fitted with front fog lights and those lights are operating effectively and are clearly visible.
(4)  In subrule (1), a reference to a kind of light fitted to a vehicle is a reference to a light of that kind required to be fitted to the vehicle under another law of this jurisdiction.
216   Towing a vehicle at night or in hazardous weather conditions
(1)  A driver must not tow a vehicle at night, or in hazardous weather conditions causing reduced visibility unless:
(a)  if the towed vehicle is being towed from the front of the vehicle:
(i)  the tail lights of the vehicle are operating effectively and are clearly visible, or
(ii)  the vehicle has portable rear lights that are operating, or
(b)  if the towed vehicle is being towed from the rear of the vehicle—the vehicle has portable rear lights that are operating.
Offence provision.
Note—
Night is defined in the dictionary.
(2)  However, this rule does not apply to the driver of a tow truck if:
(a)  the driver is towing a disabled vehicle carrying a placard load of dangerous goods to a place that is safely off the road, and
(b)  a vehicle carrying a warning to other traffic is following immediately behind the disabled vehicle.
(3)  In this rule:
dangerous goods has the meaning given, for the Australian Road Rules, under another law of this jurisdiction.
placard load has the meaning given, for the Australian Road Rules, under another law of this jurisdiction.
portable rear lights means:
(a)  for a vehicle being towed from the front of the vehicle—a pair of lights attached to the rear of the vehicle that, when operating, show a red light that is clearly visible for at least 200 metres from the rear of the vehicle, and
(b)  for a vehicle being towed from the rear of the vehicle—a pair of lights attached to the front of the vehicle that, when operating, show a red light that is clearly visible for at least 200 metres from the front of the vehicle.
road does not include a road-related area, but includes any shoulder of the road.
Note—
Road-related area is defined in rule 13, and shoulder is defined in rule 12.
217   Using rear fog lights
(1)  The driver of a vehicle fitted with a rear fog light must not operate the fog light unless the driver is driving in fog or other hazardous weather conditions causing reduced visibility.
Offence provision.
(2)  In this rule:
rear fog light means a light fitted to a vehicle to make it more easily visible from the rear in fog.
218   Using headlights on high-beam
(1)  The driver of a vehicle must not use the vehicle’s headlights on high-beam, or allow the vehicle’s headlights to be used on high-beam, if the driver is driving:
(a)  less than 200 metres behind a vehicle travelling in the same direction as the driver, or
(b)  less than 200 metres from an oncoming vehicle.
Offence provision.
Note—
High-beam and oncoming vehicle are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  However, if the driver is overtaking a vehicle, the driver may briefly switch the headlights from low-beam to high-beam immediately before the driver begins to overtake the vehicle.
Note—
Low-beam and overtake are defined in the dictionary.
Examples—
Example 1Using headlights on low-beam when travelling less than 200 metres behind another vehicle travelling in the same direction
Example 2Using headlights on low-beam when travelling within 200 metres of an oncoming vehicle
219   Lights not to be used to dazzle other road users
A driver must not use, or allow to be used, any light fitted to or in the driver’s vehicle to dazzle, or in a way that is likely to dazzle, another road user.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Driver’s vehicle is defined in the dictionary, and road user is defined in rule 14.
Note 2—
Driver includes a person in control of a vehicle—see the definition of drive in the dictionary.
220   Using lights on vehicles that are stopped
(1)  A driver must not stop on a road at night unless:
(a)  if the driver’s vehicle is 2.2 metres wide, or wider—the clearance and side marker lights fitted to the vehicle are operating effectively and are clearly visible, or
(b)  in any other case—the parking lights fitted to the driver’s vehicle are operating effectively and are clearly visible.
Offence provision.
Note—
Driver’s vehicle and night are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  This rule does not apply to a driver if the driver stops on a length of road, or in an area, with street lighting and the driver’s vehicle is visible for at least 200 metres in all directions from the vehicle.
Note—
Length of road is defined in the dictionary.
(3)  In subrule (1), a reference to a kind of light fitted to a vehicle is a reference to a light of that kind required to be fitted to the vehicle under another law of this jurisdiction.
(4)  In this rule:
road does not include a road-related area, but includes any shoulder of the road.
Note—
Road-related area is defined in rule 13, and shoulder is defined in rule 12.
221   Using hazard warning lights
The driver of a vehicle fitted with hazard warning lights must not use the hazard warning lights, or allow them to be used, unless:
(a)  the vehicle is stopped and is obstructing, or is likely to obstruct, the path of other vehicles or pedestrians, or
(b)  the vehicle is a slow-moving vehicle and is obstructing, or is likely to obstruct, the path of other vehicles or pedestrians, or
(c)  the vehicle is stopped in an emergency stopping lane, or
(d)  the driver stops the vehicle to sell a product (for example, ice creams) that may attract children onto the road, or
(e)  the driver is driving in hazardous weather conditions (for example, fog or smoke), or
(f)  the vehicle is a bus carrying children, and the driver stops the vehicle to drop off or pick up a child and is required or permitted to operate the hazard warning lights under another law of this jurisdiction, or
(g)  the hazard warning lights are operating as part of an anti-theft device fitted to the vehicle.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Bus and hazard warning lights are defined in the dictionary, and emergency stopping lane is defined in rule 95.
Note 2—
Driver includes a person in control of a vehicle—see the definition of drive in the dictionary.
Note 3—
A vehicle does not obstruct another vehicle only because the vehicle is stopped in traffic or is travelling more slowly than other vehicles—see the definition of obstruction in the dictionary.
222   Using warning lights on buses carrying children
(1)  This rule applies to the driver of a bus carrying children if the bus is required to be fitted with warning lights under another law of this jurisdiction.
Note—
Bus is defined in the dictionary.
(2)  The driver must not stop the bus to drop off or pick up a child unless the warning lights are operating as required under the law of this jurisdiction.
Offence provision.
Division 2 Lights on animal-drawn vehicles
223   Using lights when riding an animal-drawn vehicle at night or in hazardous weather conditions
A person must not ride an animal-drawn vehicle at night, or in hazardous weather conditions causing reduced visibility, unless the vehicle is fitted with, and displays:
(a)  a white light fitted at or towards the front of each side of the vehicle that is clearly visible for at least 200 metres from the front of the vehicle, and
(b)  a red light fitted at or towards the rear of each side of the vehicle that is clearly visible for at least 200 metres from the rear of the vehicle, and
(c)  a red reflector fitted at or towards the rear of each side of the vehicle that is:
(i)  not over 1.5 metres above ground level, and
(ii)  clearly visible for at least 50 metres from the rear of the vehicle when light is projected onto it by another vehicle’s headlight on low-beam.
Offence provision.
Note—
Low-beam and night are defined in the dictionary.
Division 3 Horns and radar detectors
224   Using horns and similar warning devices
A driver must not use, or allow to be used, a horn, or similar warning device, fitted to or in the driver’s vehicle unless:
(a)  it is necessary to use the horn, or warning device, to warn other road users or animals of the approach or position of the vehicle, or
(b)  the horn, or warning device, is being used as part of an anti-theft device fitted to the vehicle.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Driver’s vehicle is defined in the dictionary, and road user is defined in rule 14.
Note 2—
Driver includes a person in control of a vehicle—see the definition of drive in the dictionary.
225   Using radar detectors and similar devices
(1)  A person must not drive a vehicle if the vehicle has in or on it a device for preventing the effective use of a speed measuring device, or a device for detecting the use of a speed measuring device, unless the person is exempt from this rule under another law of this jurisdiction.
Offence provision.
Note—
Drive includes be in control of—see the definition in the dictionary.
(2)  Subrule (1) applies whether or not the device is operating or in working order.
Note—
Under the law of this jurisdiction, radar detectors and similar devices may be subject to confiscation.
Division 4 Portable warning triangles for heavy vehicles
226   Heavy vehicles to be equipped with portable warning triangles
(1)  A person must not drive a vehicle with a GVM over 12 tonnes unless the vehicle is equipped with at least 3 portable warning triangles.
Offence provision.
Note—
GVM and portable warning triangle are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  The person must produce the portable warning triangles for inspection if the person is directed to do so by a police officer or an authorised person.
Offence provision.
Note—
Authorised person and police officer are defined in the dictionary.
227   Using portable warning triangles
(1)  This rule applies to a driver if the GVM of the driver’s vehicle is over 12 tonnes.
Note—
Driver’s vehicle and GVM are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  If the driver stops on a road and the vehicle is not visible at any time for at least 200 metres in all directions from the vehicle, the driver must use at least 3 portable warning triangles, positioned in accordance with subrule (4), to warn other road users of the vehicle.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Portable warning triangle is defined in the dictionary, and road user is defined in rule 14.
Note 2—
See rule 220 for the requirement to operate certain lights on vehicles that are stopped.
(3)  If some or all of any load being carried by the vehicle falls onto a road and is not clearly visible at any time for at least 200 metres in all directions from the fallen load, the driver must use at least 3 portable warning triangles, positioned in accordance with subrule (4), to warn other road users of the fallen load.
Offence provision.
(4)  The driver must position the portable warning triangles so:
(a)  1 triangle is at least 50 metres, but not over 150 metres, in front of the vehicle or fallen load, and
(b)  1 triangle is at least 50 metres, but not over 150 metres, behind the vehicle or fallen load, and
(c)  1 triangle is at the side of the vehicle, or fallen load, in a position that gives sufficient warning to other road users of the position of the vehicle or fallen load.
(5)  In this rule:
road does not include a road-related area, but includes any shoulder of the road.
Note—
Road-related area is defined in rule 13, and shoulder is defined in rule 12.
Part 14 Rules for pedestrians
Division 1 General
Note 1—
For the Australian Road Rules, a pedestrian includes:
  a person driving a motorised wheelchair that cannot travel at over 10 kilometres per hour (on level ground)
  a person in a non-motorised wheelchair
  a person pushing a motorised or non-motorised wheelchair
  a person in or on a wheeled recreational device or wheeled toy (see rule 18).
Note 2—
Wheelchair, wheeled recreational device and wheeled toy are defined in the dictionary.
228   No pedestrians signs
A pedestrian must not travel past a no pedestrians sign.
Offence provision.
No pedestrians sign
229   Pedestrians on a road with a road access sign
A pedestrian must not be on a length of road to which a road access sign applies if information on or with the sign indicates that pedestrians are not permitted beyond the sign.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Length of road and with are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
For the way in which a road access sign applies, see rule 97. The sign is usually used on a freeway.
Road access sign
Note 1 for diagram—
There are a number of other permitted versions of the road access sign—see the diagrams in Schedule 3.
Note 2 for diagram—
The sign may indicate that it applies to different or additional vehicles or persons—see rule 316 (4).
230   Crossing a road—general
(1)  A pedestrian crossing a road:
(a)  must cross by the shortest safe route, and
(b)  must not stay on the road longer than necessary to cross the road safely.
Offence provision.
(2)  However, if the pedestrian is crossing the road at an intersection with traffic lights and a pedestrians may cross diagonally sign, the pedestrian may cross the road diagonally at the intersection.
Note—
Intersection and traffic lights are defined in the dictionary.
(3)  In this rule:
road does not include a road-related area, but includes any shoulder of the road.
Note—
Road-related area is defined in rule 13, and shoulder is defined in rule 12.
Pedestrians may cross diagonally sign
Note for diagram—
There is another permitted version of this sign—see the diagram in Schedule 3.
231   Crossing a road at pedestrian lights
(1)  A pedestrian approaching or at an intersection, or another place on a road, with pedestrian lights and traffic lights must comply with this rule.
Offence provision.
Note—
Intersection, pedestrian lights and traffic lights are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  If the pedestrian lights show a red pedestrian light and the pedestrian has not already started crossing the intersection or road, the pedestrian must not start to cross until the pedestrian lights change to green.
Note 1—
Green pedestrian light and red pedestrian light are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
A traffic control device (including pedestrian lights) generally only applies to a person if the device faces the person—see Part 20, Division 3, especially rule 340.
(3)  If, while the pedestrian is crossing the road, the pedestrian lights change to flashing red or red, the pedestrian must not stay on the road for longer than necessary to cross safely to the nearer (in the direction of travel of the pedestrian) of the following:
(a)  a dividing strip, safety zone, or traffic island, forming part of the area set aside or used by pedestrians to cross the road at the intersection or place (the safety area),
(b)  the nearest side of the road.
Note—
Dividing strip and traffic island are defined in the dictionary, and safety zone is defined in rule 162.
(4)  If, under subrule (3), the pedestrian crosses to the safety area, the pedestrian must remain in the safety area until the pedestrian lights change to green.
(5)  However, if the pedestrian cannot operate the pedestrian lights from the safety area, the pedestrian may cross to the far side of the road when:
(a)  the traffic lights change to green or flashing yellow, or there is no red traffic light showing, and
(b)  it is safe to do so.
Note—
Red traffic light is defined in the dictionary.
(6)  In this rule:
road does not include a road-related area, but includes any shoulder of the road.
Note—
Road-related area is defined in rule 13, and shoulder is defined in rule 12.
Red pedestrian light showing red pedestrian symbol
Green pedestrian light showing green pedestrian symbol
232   Crossing a road at traffic lights
(1)  A pedestrian approaching or at an intersection, or another place on a road, with traffic lights, but without pedestrian lights, must comply with this rule.
Offence provision.
Note—
Intersection, pedestrian lights and traffic lights are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  If the traffic lights show a red or yellow traffic light and the pedestrian has not already started crossing the intersection or road, the pedestrian must not start to cross until the traffic lights change to green or flashing yellow, or there is no red traffic light showing.
Note—
Green traffic light, red traffic light and yellow traffic light are defined in the dictionary.
(3)  If, while the pedestrian is crossing the road, the traffic lights change to yellow or red, the pedestrian must not stay on the road for longer than necessary to cross safely to the nearer (in the direction of travel of the pedestrian) of the following:
(a)  a dividing strip, safety zone, or traffic island, forming part of the area set aside or used by pedestrians to cross the road at the intersection or place (the safety area),
(b)  the nearest side of the road.
Offence provision.
Note—
Dividing strip and traffic island are defined in the dictionary, and safety zone is defined in rule 162.
(4)  If, under subrule (3), the pedestrian crosses to the safety area, the pedestrian must remain in the safety area until the traffic lights change to green or flashing yellow, or there is no red traffic light showing.
Offence provision.
(5)  In this rule:
road does not include a road-related area, but includes any shoulder of the road.
Note—
Road-related area is defined in rule 13, and shoulder is defined in rule 12.
233   Crossing a road to or from a tram
(1)  A pedestrian must not cross a road to get on a tram at a tram stop until the tram has stopped at the tram stop.
Offence provision.
Note—
Tram is defined in the dictionary.
(2)  A pedestrian crossing a road after getting off a tram:
(a)  must cross to the nearest footpath by the shortest safe route or, if there is no footpath, cross the road by the shortest safe route, and
(b)  must not stay on the road for longer than necessary to cross the road safely.
Offence provision.
Note—
Footpath is defined in the dictionary.
(3)  This rule does not apply to a pedestrian:
(a)  on a safety zone, or
(b)  crossing a road to or from a safety zone.
Note—
Safety zone is defined in rule 162.
(4)  Subrule (2) does not apply to:
(a)  a pedestrian in a shared zone, or
(b)  an employee of a public transport operator who is in uniform and engaged in carrying out his or her duties.
Note—
Shared zone is defined in rule 24.
(5)  In this rule:
road does not include a road-related area, but includes any shoulder of the road.
tram includes a bus travelling along tram tracks.
Note 1—
Bus and travelling along tram tracks are defined in the dictionary, road-related area is defined in rule 13, and shoulder is defined in rule 12.
Note 2—
For the duties of drivers where there are pedestrians getting on or off trams or buses, or in safety zones, see rules 162 to 164.
234   Crossing a road on or near a crossing for pedestrians
(1)  A pedestrian must not cross a road, or part of a road, within 20 metres of a crossing on the road, except at the crossing or another crossing, unless the pedestrian is:
(a)  crossing, or helping another pedestrian to cross, an area of the road between tram tracks and the far left side of the road to get on, or after getting off, a tram or public bus, or
(b)  crossing to or from a safety zone, or
(c)  crossing at an intersection with traffic lights and a pedestrians may cross diagonally sign, or
(d)  crossing in a shared zone, or
(e)  crossing a road, or a part of a road, from which vehicles are excluded, either permanently or temporarily.
Offence provision.
Note—
Intersection, public bus, traffic lights, tram and tram tracks are defined in the dictionary, safety zone is defined in rule 162, and shared zone is defined in rule 24.
(2)  A pedestrian must not stay on a crossing on a road for longer than necessary to cross the road safely.
Offence provision.
(3)  Subrule (2) does not apply to a person who is helping pedestrians cross a road at a crossing if the person is permitted to do so under another law of this jurisdiction.
(4)  In this rule:
crossing means a children’s crossing, marked foot crossing or pedestrian crossing.
Note—
Children’s crossing is defined in rule 80, marked foot crossing is defined in the dictionary, and pedestrian crossing is defined in rule 81.
Pedestrians may cross diagonally sign
Note for diagram—
There is another permitted version of this sign—see the diagram in Schedule 3.
235   Crossing a level crossing
(1)  A pedestrian must not cross a railway line, or tram tracks, at a level crossing unless:
(a)  there is a pedestrian facility at the crossing and the pedestrian uses the facility, or
(b)  there is no pedestrian facility at, or within 20 metres of, the crossing.
Offence provision.
Note—
Level crossing is defined in rule 120.
(2)  A pedestrian must not cross a railway line, or tram tracks, at a level crossing if:
(a)  warning lights (for example, twin red lights or rotating red lights) are flashing or warning bells are ringing, or
(b)  a gate, boom or barrier at the crossing is closed or is opening or closing, or
(c)  a train or tram is on or entering the crossing, or
(d)  a train or tram approaching the crossing can be seen from the crossing or is sounding a warning, and there would be a danger of the pedestrian being struck by the train or tram if the pedestrian entered the crossing, or
(e)  the crossing, or a road beyond the crossing, is blocked.
Offence provision.
Example for paragraph (2) (e)—
The crossing, or a road beyond the crossing, may be blocked by congested traffic, a disabled vehicle, a collision between vehicles or between a vehicle and a pedestrian, or by stock on the road.
Note—
Enter and twin red lights are defined in the dictionary.
(3)  In this rule:
pedestrian facility means a footpath, bridge or other structure designed for the use of pedestrians.
Note—
Footpath is defined in the dictionary.
236   Pedestrians not to cause a traffic hazard or obstruction
(1)  A pedestrian must not cause a traffic hazard by moving into the path of a driver.
Offence provision.
(2)  A pedestrian must not unreasonably obstruct the path of any driver or another pedestrian.
Offence provision.
(3)  For subrule (2), a pedestrian does not unreasonably obstruct the path of another pedestrian only by travelling more slowly than other pedestrians.
237   Getting on or into a moving vehicle
(1)  A person must not get on, or into, a moving vehicle unless:
(a)  the person is engaged in the door-to-door delivery or collection of goods, or in the collection of waste or garbage, and is required to get in or out of the vehicle, or on or off the vehicle, at frequent intervals, and
(b)  the vehicle is not travelling at a speed over 5 kilometres per hour.
Offence provision.
(2)  This rule does not apply to a person who is getting on or off a bicycle or animal.
Note 1—
Bicycle is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 269 (1) prohibits a person getting off, or out of, a moving vehicle.
238   Pedestrians travelling along a road (except in or on a wheeled recreational device or toy)
(1)  A pedestrian must not travel along a road if there is a footpath or nature strip adjacent to the road, unless it is impracticable to travel on the footpath or nature strip.
Offence provision.
Note—
Footpath and nature strip are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  A pedestrian travelling along a road:
(a)  must keep as far to the left or right side of the road as is practicable, and
(b)  must not travel on the road alongside more than 1 other pedestrian or vehicle travelling on the road in the same direction as the pedestrian, unless the pedestrian is overtaking other pedestrians.
Offence provision.
(3)  In this rule:
pedestrian does not include a person travelling in or on a wheeled recreational device or wheeled toy.
road does not include a road-related area, but includes any shoulder of the road.
Note 1—
Road-related area is defined in rule 13, shoulder is defined in rule 12, and wheeled recreational device and wheeled toy are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Persons travelling on roads in or on wheeled recreational devices or wheeled toys are dealt with in rule 241.
239   Pedestrians on a bicycle path or separated footpath
(1)  A pedestrian must not be on a bicycle path, or a part of a separated footpath designated for the use of bicycles, unless the pedestrian:
(a)  is crossing the bicycle path or separated footpath by the shortest safe route, and
(b)  does not stay on the bicycle path or separated footpath for longer than necessary to cross the bicycle path or separated footpath safely.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Bicycle is defined in the dictionary, and bicycle path and separated footpath are defined in subrule (4).
Note 2—
Rule 336 deals with how parts of a separated footpath are designated for bicycle riders and pedestrians.
(2)  However, a pedestrian may be on a bicycle path, or a part of a separated footpath designated for the use of bicycles, if:
(a)  the pedestrian is:
(i)  in or pushing a wheelchair, or
(ii)  on rollerblades, rollerskates or a similar wheeled recreational device, and
(b)  there is no traffic control device, or information on or with a traffic control device, applying to the bicycle path or separated footpath that indicates that the pedestrian is not permitted to be on the bicycle path or the part of the separated footpath designated for the use of bicycles.
Note 1—
Traffic control device, wheelchair, wheeled recreational device and with are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 243 (2) provides that a person travelling on rollerblades, rollerskates, or a similar wheeled recreational device, on a bicycle path, or a part of a separated footpath designated for the use of bicycles, must keep out of the path of any bicycle.
(3)  A pedestrian who is crossing a bicycle path, or a part of a separated footpath designated for the use of bicycles, must keep out of the path of any bicycle, or any pedestrian who is permitted under subrule (2) to be on the bicycle path, or the part of the separated footpath designated for the use of bicycles.
Offence provision.
(4)  In the Australian Road Rules:
bicycle path means a length of path beginning at a bicycle path sign or bicycle path road marking, and ending at the nearest of the following:
(a)  an end bicycle path sign or end bicycle path road marking,
(b)  a separated footpath sign or separated footpath road marking,
(c)  a road (except a road-related area),
(d)  the end of the path.
Note—
Road-related area is defined in rule 13.
bicycle path road marking means a road marking on a path, consisting of a bicycle symbol, the words “bicycles only”, or both the bicycle symbol and the word “only”.
Note—
Bicycle symbol is defined in the dictionary.
end bicycle path road marking means a bicycle path road marking with the word “end”.
end separated footpath road marking means a separated footpath road marking with the word “end”.
separated footpath means a length of footpath beginning at a separated footpath sign or separated footpath road marking, and ending at the nearest of the following:
(a)  an end separated footpath sign or end separated footpath road marking,
(b)  a bicycle path sign or bicycle path road marking,
(c)  a no bicycles sign or no bicycles road marking,
(d)  a road (except a road-related area),
(e)  the end of the footpath.
Note—
Footpath and no bicycles road marking are defined in the dictionary.
separated footpath road marking means a road marking on a footpath consisting of a pedestrian symbol and a bicycle symbol side by side, with or without the word “only”.
Note—
Pedestrian symbol is defined in the dictionary.
Bicycle path sign
End bicycle path sign
Separated footpath sign
End separated footpath sign
No bicycles sign
Note 1 for diagrams—
There are a number of other permitted versions of the bicycle path sign and the end bicycle path sign, and another permitted version of each of the other signs—see the diagrams in Schedule 3.
Note 2 for diagrams—
A separated footpath sign may have the pedestrian symbol and the bicycle symbol reversed—see rule 316 (4).
Division 2 Rules for persons travelling in or on wheeled recreational devices and wheeled toys
Note 1—
For the Australian Road Rules, a person in or on a wheeled recreational device or wheeled toy is a pedestrian, not a rider—see rule 18 (d). This Division contains rules that apply only to persons travelling in or on wheeled recreational devices and wheeled toys.
Note 2—
Wheeled recreational device and wheeled toy are defined in the dictionary.
240   Wheeled recreational devices and toys not to be used on certain roads
(1)  A person must not travel in or on a wheeled recreational device or wheeled toy on a road with a dividing line or median strip, or on a one-way road with more than 1 marked lane.
Offence provision.
Note—
Dividing line, marked lane, median strip and one-way road are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  A person must not travel in or on a wheeled recreational device:
(a)  on a road that is declared, under another law of this jurisdiction, to be a road on which wheeled recreational devices are prohibited, or
(b)  on a road at a particular time if another law of this jurisdiction prohibits wheeled recreational devices from being on all roads, or that road, at that time.
Offence provision.
Example for paragraph (b)—
Another law of this jurisdiction may provide that a person must not travel in or on a wheeled recreational device on a road at night.
(3)  A person must not travel in or on a wheeled toy:
(a)  on a road that is declared, under another law of this jurisdiction, to be a road on which wheeled toys are prohibited, or
(b)  on a road at a particular time if another law of this jurisdiction prohibits wheeled toys on all roads, or that road, at that time.
Offence provision.
(4)  In subrule (1), road does not include a road-related area but includes any shoulder of the road.
241   Travelling in or on a wheeled recreational device or toy on a road
(1)  A person travelling in or on a wheeled recreational device or wheeled toy on a road:
(a)  must keep as far to the left side of the road as is practicable, and
(b)  must not travel alongside more than 1 other pedestrian or vehicle travelling on the road in the same direction as the person, unless the person is overtaking other pedestrians.
Offence provision.
(2)  In this rule:
road does not include a road-related area, but, in subrule (1) (b), includes any shoulder of the road.
Note—
Road-related area is defined in rule 13, and shoulder is defined in rule 12.
242   Travelling in or on a wheeled recreational device or toy on a footpath or shared path
(1)  A person travelling in or on a wheeled recreational device or wheeled toy on a footpath or shared path must:
(a)  keep to the left of the footpath or shared path unless it is impracticable to do so, and
(b)  give way to any pedestrian (except a person travelling in or on a wheeled recreational device or wheeled toy) who is on the footpath or shared path.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Footpath is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
For this rule, give way means the person must slow down and, if necessary, stop to avoid a collision—see the definition in the dictionary.
Note 3—
Bicycle riders on footpaths and shared paths must give way to persons travelling in or on wheeled recreational devices or toys, as well as other pedestrians—see rule 250 (2).
Note 4—
Another law of this jurisdiction may prescribe give way rules for persons travelling in or on wheeled recreational devices or toys.
(2)  A shared path is an area open to the public (except a separated footpath) that is designated for, or has as one of its main uses, use by both the riders of bicycles and pedestrians, and includes a length of path for use by both bicycles and pedestrians beginning at a shared path sign and ending at the nearest of the following:
(a)  an end shared path sign,
(b)  a no bicycles sign or no bicycles road marking,
(c)  a bicycle path sign,
(d)  a road (except a road-related area),
(e)  the end of the path.
Note—
Bicycle and no bicycles road marking are defined in the dictionary, road-related area is defined in rule 13, and separated footpath is defined in rule 239.
Shared path sign
End shared path sign
No bicycles sign
Bicycle path sign
Note for diagrams—
There are a number of other permitted versions of the bicycle path sign, and another permitted version of each of the other signs—see the diagrams in Schedule 3.
243   Travelling on rollerblades etc on a bicycle path or separated footpath
(1)  A person travelling on rollerblades, rollerskates, or a similar wheeled recreational device, must not be on a part of a separated footpath designated for the use of pedestrians unless the person:
(a)  is crossing the separated footpath by the shortest safe route, and
(b)  does not stay on the separated footpath for longer than necessary to cross the separated footpath safely.
Offence provision.
Note—
Separated footpath is defined in rule 239.
(2)  A person travelling on rollerblades, rollerskates, or a similar wheeled recreational device, on a bicycle path, or a part of a separated footpath designated for the use of bicycles, must keep out of the path of any bicycle.
Offence provision.
Note—
Bicycle is defined in the dictionary, and bicycle path is defined in rule 239.
244   Holding onto a moving vehicle
A person travelling in or on a wheeled recreational device or wheeled toy must not hold onto a vehicle while the vehicle is moving.
Offence provision.
Note—
Vehicle is defined in rule 15.
Part 15 Additional rules for bicycle riders
Note 1—
This Part contains rules that apply only to bicycle riders. Most rules in the Australian Road Rules apply to bicycle riders in the same way as they apply to drivers—see rule 19. There are some other rules that are for bicycle riders only, or that have exceptions for bicycle riders. These include:
  optional hook turn by bicycle riders—rule 35
  bicycle riders making a hook turn contrary to a no hook turn by bicycles sign—rule 36
  bicycle riders excepted from giving stop signals—rule 52
  exception for bicycle riders riding in emergency stopping lanes—rule 95
  bicycle riders entering and leaving roundabouts—rules 111 and 119
  bicycle riders overtaking on the left—rule 141
  riding alongside other riders—rule 151
  bicycle lanes—rule 153
  parking at a bicycle rail or in a bicycle rack—rule 166
  stopping on footpaths—rule 197
  stopping on a road with a bicycle parking sign—rule 201.
Note 2—
Bicycle is defined in the dictionary.
245   Riding a bicycle
The rider of a bicycle must:
(a)  sit astride the rider’s seat facing forwards (except if the bicycle is not built to be ridden astride), and
(b)  ride with at least 1 hand on the handlebars, and
(c)  if the bicycle is equipped with a seat—not ride the bicycle seated in any other position on the bicycle.
Offence provision.
246   Carrying people on a bicycle
The rider of a bicycle must not carry more persons on the bicycle than the bicycle is designed to carry.
Offence provision.
247   Riding in a bicycle lane on a road
(1)  The rider of a bicycle riding on a length of road with a bicycle lane designed for bicycles travelling in the same direction as the rider must ride in the bicycle lane unless it is impracticable to do so.
Offence provision.
Note—
Rule 153 defines a bicycle lane and deals with the use of bicycle lanes by other vehicles.
(2)  In this rule:
road does not include a road-related area.
Note—
Road-related area includes the shoulder of a road—see rule 13.
248   No riding across a road on a crossing
The rider of a bicycle must not ride across a road, or part of a road, on a children’s crossing, marked foot crossing or pedestrian crossing.
Offence provision.
Note—
Children’s crossing is defined in rule 80, marked foot crossing is defined in the dictionary, and pedestrian crossing is defined in rule 81.
249   Riding on a separated footpath
The rider of a bicycle must not ride on a part of a separated footpath designated for the use of pedestrians.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Separated footpath is defined in rule 239, and pedestrian is defined in rule 18.
Note 2—
Rule 336 deals with how parts of a separated footpath are designated for bicycle riders and pedestrians.
250   Riding on a footpath or shared path
(1)  The rider of a bicycle who is 12 years old or older must not ride on a footpath if another law of this jurisdiction prohibits the rider from riding on the footpath.
Offence provision.
Example of another law of this jurisdiction—
Another law of this jurisdiction may provide that a commercial courier must not ride a bicycle on any footpath or any footpath in a particular area, or that an adult must not ride a bicycle on a footpath unless the adult is accompanying a child under 12 years who is also riding on the footpath.
Note—
Footpath is defined in the dictionary.
(2)  The rider of a bicycle riding on a footpath or shared path must:
(a)  keep to the left of the footpath or shared path unless it is impracticable to do so, and
(b)  give way to any pedestrian on the footpath or shared path.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Pedestrian is defined in rule 18, and shared path is defined in rule 242.
Note 2—
For subrule (2), give way means the rider must slow down and, if necessary, stop to avoid a collision—see the definition in the dictionary.
(3)  In this rule:
footpath does not include a separated footpath.
Note—
Separated footpath is defined in rule 239.
251   Riding to the left of oncoming bicycle riders on a path
The rider of a bicycle riding on a bicycle path, footpath, separated footpath or shared path must keep to the left of any oncoming bicycle rider on the path.
Offence provision.
Note—
Bicycle path and separated footpath are defined in rule 239, footpath is defined in the dictionary, and shared path is defined in rule 242.
252   No bicycles signs and markings
(1)  The rider of a bicycle must not ride on a length of road or footpath to which a no bicycles sign, or a no bicycles road marking, applies.
Offence provision.
Note—
Footpath, length of road and no bicycles road marking are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  A no bicycles sign, or a no bicycles road marking, applies to a length of road or footpath beginning at the sign or marking and ending at the nearest of the following:
(a)  a bicycle path sign or bicycle path road marking,
(b)  a bicycle lane sign,
(c)  a separated footpath sign or separated footpath road marking,
(d)  a shared path sign,
(e)  an end no bicycles sign,
(f)  the next intersection.
Note—
Intersection is defined in the dictionary, and bicycle path road marking and separated footpath road marking are defined in rule 239.
No bicycles sign
Bicycle path sign
Bicycle lane sign
Separated footpath sign
Shared path sign
End no bicycles sign
Note 1 for diagrams—
There are a number of other permitted versions of the bicycle path sign and bicycle lane sign, and another permitted version of the no bicycles sign, separated footpath sign and shared path sign—see the diagrams in Schedule 3.
Note 2 for diagrams—
A separated footpath sign may have the pedestrian symbol and the bicycle symbol reversed—see rule 316 (4).
253   Bicycle riders not to cause a traffic hazard
The rider of a bicycle must not cause a traffic hazard by moving into the path of a driver or pedestrian.
Offence provision.
254   Bicycles being towed etc
(1)  A person must not ride on a bicycle that is being towed by another vehicle.
Offence provision.
Note—
Vehicle is defined in rule 15.
(2)  The rider of a bicycle must not hold onto another vehicle while the vehicle is moving.
Offence provision.
255   Riding too close to the rear of a motor vehicle
The rider of a bicycle must not ride within 2 metres of the rear of a moving motor vehicle continuously for more than 200 metres.
Offence provision.
Note—
Motor vehicle is defined in the dictionary.
256   Bicycle helmets
(1)  The rider of a bicycle must wear an approved bicycle helmet securely fitted and fastened on the rider’s head, unless the rider is exempt from wearing a bicycle helmet under another law of this jurisdiction.
Offence provision.
Note—
Approved bicycle helmet is defined in the dictionary.
(2)  The rider of a bicycle must not carry a passenger on the bicycle unless:
(a)  the passenger is wearing an approved bicycle helmet securely fitted and fastened on the passenger’s head, or
(b)  the passenger is exempt from wearing a bicycle helmet under another law of this jurisdiction.
Offence provision.
(3)  Subrule (2) does not apply to the rider of a three or four-wheeled bicycle who is carrying a paying passenger.
257   Riding with a person on a bicycle trailer
(1)  The rider of a bicycle must not tow a bicycle trailer with a person in or on the bicycle trailer, unless:
(a)  the rider is 16 years old, or older, and
(b)  the person in or on the bicycle trailer is under 10 years old, or as otherwise provided under another law of this jurisdiction, and
(c)  the bicycle trailer can safely carry the person, and
(d)  the person in or on the bicycle trailer is wearing an approved bicycle helmet securely fitted and fastened on the person’s head, unless the person is exempt from wearing a bicycle helmet under another law of this jurisdiction.
Offence provision.
Note—
Approved bicycle helmet is defined in the dictionary.
(2)  In this rule:
bicycle trailer means a vehicle that is built to be towed, or is towed, by a bicycle.
Note—
Vehicle is defined in rule 15.
258   Equipment on a bicycle
A person must not ride a bicycle that does not have:
(a)  at least 1 effective brake, and
(b)  a bell, horn, or similar warning device, in working order.
Offence provision.
259   Riding at night
The rider of a bicycle must not ride at night, or in hazardous weather conditions causing reduced visibility, unless the bicycle, or the rider, displays:
(a)  a flashing or steady white light that is clearly visible for at least 200 metres from the front of the bicycle, and
(b)  a flashing or steady red light that is clearly visible for at least 200 metres from the rear of the bicycle, and
(c)  a red reflector that is clearly visible for at least 50 metres from the rear of the bicycle when light is projected onto it by a vehicle’s headlight on low-beam.
Offence provision.
Note—
Low-beam and night are defined in the dictionary.
260   Stopping for a red bicycle crossing light
(1)  The rider of a bicycle approaching or at bicycle crossing lights showing a red bicycle crossing light must stop before reaching the bicycle crossing lights.
Offence provision.
Note—
Bicycle crossing lights and red bicycle crossing light are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  The rider must not proceed until:
(a)  the bicycle crossing lights change to green, or
(b)  there is no red bicycle crossing light showing.
Offence provision.
Note—
Green bicycle crossing light is defined in the dictionary.
Example—
Red bicycle crossing light
Green bicycle crossing light
261   Stopping for a yellow bicycle crossing light
(1)  The rider of a bicycle approaching bicycle crossing lights showing a yellow bicycle crossing light must comply with this rule.
Offence provision.
Note—
Bicycle crossing lights and yellow bicycle crossing light are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  If the rider can stop safely before reaching the bicycle crossing lights, the bicycle rider must stop before reaching the lights.
(3)  If the rider stops before reaching the bicycle crossing lights, and the lights change to red, the bicycle rider must not proceed until:
(a)  the bicycle crossing lights change to green, or
(b)  there is no red or yellow bicycle crossing light showing.
Note—
Green bicycle crossing light and red bicycle crossing light are defined in the dictionary.
Yellow bicycle crossing light
262   Proceeding when bicycle crossing lights change to yellow or red
(1)  If bicycle crossing lights at an intersection change from green to yellow or red while the rider of a bicycle is in the intersection, the rider must finish crossing the intersection as soon as the rider can do so safely.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Bicycle crossing lights is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Intersection does not include a road-related area—see the definition in the dictionary.
(2)  If bicycle crossing lights at a place on a road where the rider of a bicycle is crossing the road change from green to yellow or red while the rider is on the road, the rider must cross the road as soon as the rider can do so safely.
Offence provision.
(3)  In this rule:
road does not include a road-related area.
Note—
Road-related area includes the shoulder of a road—see rule 13.
Part 16 Rules for persons travelling in or on vehicles
263   Application of Part to persons in or on trams
This Part, except rule 269 (1), does not apply to a person in or on a tram.
Note—
Rule 269 (1) prohibits a person getting off, or out of, a moving vehicle.
264   Wearing of seatbelts by drivers
(1)  The driver of a motor vehicle that is moving, or is stationary but not parked, must comply with this rule if the driver’s seating position is fitted with a seatbelt.
Offence provision.
Note—
Driver is defined in rule 16, and motor vehicle and park are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  The driver must wear the seatbelt properly adjusted and fastened unless the driver is:
(a)  reversing the vehicle, or
(b)  exempt from wearing a seatbelt under rule 267.
Note—
Rule 267 provides exemptions from wearing seatbelts.
265   Wearing of seatbelts by passengers 16 years old, or older
(1)  A passenger in or on a motor vehicle that is moving, or is stationary but not parked, must comply with this rule if the passenger is 16 years old, or older.
Offence provision.
Note—
Motor vehicle and park are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  The passenger must occupy a seating position fitted with a seatbelt if:
(a)  there is a seating position fitted with a seatbelt that is not already occupied by someone else who is not exempt from wearing a seatbelt, and
(b)  the passenger is not exempt from wearing a seatbelt under rule 267.
(3)  If the passenger occupies a seating position fitted with a seatbelt, the passenger must wear the seatbelt properly adjusted and fastened unless the passenger is exempt from wearing a seatbelt under rule 267.
(4)  If the motor vehicle has 2 or more rows of seats, the passenger must not sit in the front row of seats unless:
(a)  the passenger is occupying a seating position fitted with a seatbelt, or
(b)  there is not a seating position available for the passenger in another row of seats, or
(c)  the passenger is permitted to sit in the front row of seats under another law of this jurisdiction.
Note—
Another law of this jurisdiction may prohibit the carrying of passengers for whom seatbelts are not available.
266   Wearing of seatbelts by passengers under 16 years old
(1)  The driver of a motor vehicle (except a bus or motor bike) that is moving, or is stationary but not parked, must ensure that this rule is complied with for each passenger in or on the vehicle who is under 16 years old.
Offence provision.
Note—
Bus, motor bike, motor vehicle and park are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  If the passenger is under 1 year old, and not exempt from wearing a seatbelt under rule 267, the passenger must be restrained in a suitable approved child restraint that is properly fastened and adjusted, unless the driver is exempt from this subrule under subrule (5).
Note—
Approved child restraint is defined in subrule (7).
(3)  If the passenger is at least 1 year old but under 16 years old, and not exempt from wearing a seatbelt under rule 267, the passenger must be restrained in a suitable approved child restraint that is properly fastened and adjusted, or occupy a seating position fitted with a suitable seatbelt and wear the seatbelt properly adjusted and fastened, if:
(a)  a suitable approved child restraint, or a seating position fitted with a suitable seatbelt, is available in the motor vehicle for the passenger, or
(b)  another law of this jurisdiction requires all passengers at least 1 year old but under 16 years old to be restrained in an approved child restraint, or wear a seatbelt, unless they are exempt from wearing a seatbelt under the law of this jurisdiction.
(4)  If the motor vehicle has 2 or more rows of seats, the passenger must not be in the front row of seats unless the passenger is restrained in a suitable approved child restraint or occupying a seating position fitted with a seatbelt.
Note—
Another law of this jurisdiction may prohibit the carrying of passengers for whom approved child restraints or seatbelts are not available.
(5)  The driver of a public minibus or taxi is exempt from subrule (2) in relation to a passenger if:
(a)  there is no suitable approved child restraint available in the minibus or taxi for the passenger, and
(b)  if the minibus or taxi has 2 or more rows of seats—the passenger is not in the front row of seats, and
(c)  there is not another law of this jurisdiction requiring all passengers in a minibus or taxi who are under 1 year old to be restrained in an approved child restraint.
Note—
Public minibus and taxi are defined in the dictionary.
(6)  For this rule:
(a)  an approved child restraint is available in the motor vehicle for a passenger if an approved child restraint is fitted in the vehicle and is not occupied by someone else under 16 years old, and
(b)  a seating position (whether or not fitted with a seatbelt) is available in the vehicle for a passenger if it is not occupied by someone else under 16 years old, and
(c)  an approved child restraint or seatbelt is suitable for a passenger if it is suitable for restraining, or to be worn by the passenger.
(7)  In this rule:
approved child restraint means a child restraint approved, for the Australian Road Rules, under another law of this jurisdiction.
267   Exemptions from wearing seatbelts
(1)  A person is exempt from wearing a seatbelt if:
(a)  the person is exempt from wearing a seatbelt under another law of this jurisdiction and is complying with the conditions (if any) of the exemption, and
(b)  if the person is a passenger in a motor vehicle with 2 or more rows of seats and there is not another law of this jurisdiction permitting the person to sit in the front row of seats—the person is not in the front row of seats.
Note—
Motor vehicle is defined in the dictionary.
(2)  A person in or on a motor vehicle is exempt from wearing a seatbelt if:
(a)  the person is engaged in the door-to-door delivery or collection of goods, or in the collection of waste or garbage, and is required to get in or out of the vehicle, or on or off the vehicle, at frequent intervals, and
(b)  the vehicle is not travelling over 25 kilometres per hour.
(3)  A person is exempt from wearing a seatbelt if:
(a)  the person (or, for a passenger, the driver of the vehicle in which the person is a passenger) is carrying a certificate, issued under another law of this jurisdiction, stating that the person is not required to wear a seatbelt, and
(b)  the person is complying with the conditions (if any) stated in the certificate.
(4)  However, a person is not exempt under subrule (3) from wearing a seatbelt if the person (or, for a passenger, the driver of the vehicle in which the person is a passenger) does not immediately produce the certificate mentioned in the subrule for inspection when a police officer or authorised person asks the person (or the driver) whether the person is exempt from wearing a seatbelt.
Note—
Authorised person and police officer are defined in the dictionary.
(5)  A person is exempt from wearing a seatbelt if:
(a)  the person is a passenger in a police or emergency vehicle, and
(b)  if the vehicle has 2 or more rows of seats—the person is not in the front row of seats or there is not a seating position available for the person in another row of seats.
Note—
Emergency vehicle and police vehicle are defined in the dictionary.
268   How persons must travel in or on a motor vehicle
(1)  A person must not travel in or on a part of a motor vehicle that is not a part designed primarily for the carriage of passengers or goods.
Offence provision.
Note—
Motor vehicle is defined in the dictionary.
(2)  A person must not travel in or on a part of a motor vehicle that is a part designed primarily for the carriage of goods if the part is:
(a)  not enclosed, or
(b)  declared under another law of this jurisdiction to be a part of the vehicle in or on which persons must not be carried.
Offence provision.
Note—
Enclosed is defined in subrule (7).
(3)  A person must not travel in or on a motor vehicle with any part of the person’s body outside a window or door of the vehicle, unless the person is the driver of the vehicle and is giving a hand signal:
(a)  for changing direction to the right in accordance with rule 50, or
(b)  for stopping or slowing in accordance with rule 55.
Offence provision.
(4)  The driver of a motor vehicle (except a bus) must not drive with a passenger if any part of the passenger’s body is outside a window or door of the vehicle.
Offence provision.
Note—
Bus is defined in the dictionary.
(5)  This rule does not apply to a person who is:
(a)  in or on a police or emergency vehicle, or
(b)  on a motor bike, or
(c)  engaged in the door-to-door delivery or collection of goods, or in the collection of waste or garbage, in or on a motor vehicle that is not travelling over 25 kilometres per hour.
Note—
Emergency vehicle, motor bike, and police vehicle are defined in the dictionary.
(6)  This rule also does not apply to a person if:
(a)  the person is exempt from this rule under another law of this jurisdiction and is complying with the conditions (if any) of the exemption, or
(b)  the vehicle is exempt from this rule under another law of this jurisdiction.
(7)  For this rule:
enclosed, for a part of a vehicle, means enclosed by:
(a)  the structure of the vehicle, or
(b)  a canopy, cage or other device fitted to the vehicle that is approved, for the Australian Road Rules, under another law of this jurisdiction.
269   Opening doors and getting out of a vehicle etc
(1)  A person must not get off, or out of, a moving vehicle, unless the person is engaged in the door-to-door delivery or collection of goods, or in the collection of waste or garbage, and the vehicle is not travelling over 5 kilometres per hour.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Vehicle is defined in rule 15.
Note 2—
Rule 237 deals with persons getting on, or into, a moving vehicle.
(2)  Subrule (1) does not apply to a person getting off a bicycle or animal.
(3)  A person must not cause a hazard to any person or vehicle by opening a door of a vehicle, leaving a door of a vehicle open, or getting off, or out of, a vehicle.
Offence provision.
(4)  The driver of a bus must not drive the bus unless the doors of the bus are closed while the bus is moving.
Offence provision.
Note—
Bus is defined in the dictionary.
270   Wearing motor bike helmets
(1)  The rider of a motor bike that is moving, or is stationary but not parked, must:
(a)  wear an approved motor bike helmet securely fitted and fastened on the rider’s head, and
(b)  not ride with a passenger unless the passenger complies with subrule (2).
Offence provision.
Note—
Motor bike and park are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  A passenger on a motor bike that is moving, or is stationary but not parked, must wear an approved motor bike helmet securely fitted and fastened on the passenger’s head.
Offence provision.
(3)  In this rule:
approved motor bike helmet means a protective helmet for motor bike riders that is approved, for the Australian Road Rules, under another law of this jurisdiction.
passenger, of a motor bike, includes a person on the pillion seat of the motor bike, or in a sidecar.
271   Riding on motor bikes
(1)  The rider of a motor bike that is moving, or is stationary but not parked, must:
(a)  sit astride the rider’s seat facing forwards, and
(b)  ride with at least 1 hand on the handlebars, and
(c)  if the motor bike is moving—keep both feet on the footrests designed for use by the rider of the motor bike.
Offence provision.
Note—
Motor bike and park are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  A passenger on a motor bike (except a passenger in a sidecar) that is moving, or is stationary but not parked, must:
(a)  sit astride the pillion seat facing forwards, and
(b)  keep both feet on the footrests designed for use by a pillion passenger on the motor bike.
Offence provision.
(3)  The rider of a motor bike must not ride with a passenger (except a passenger in a sidecar) unless the passenger complies with subrule (2).
Offence provision.
(4)  The rider of a motor bike must not ride with more than 1 passenger (excluding any passenger in a sidecar).
Offence provision.
(5)  The rider of a motor bike must not ride with more passengers in a side car than the sidecar is designed to carry.
Offence provision.
(6)  A provision of this rule does not apply to a person if the person is exempt from the provision under another law of this jurisdiction.
272   Interfering with the driver’s control of the vehicle etc
A passenger in or on a vehicle must not:
(a)  interfere with the driver’s control of the vehicle, or
(b)  obstruct the driver’s view of the road or traffic.
Offence provision.
Part 17 Additional rules for drivers of trams and public buses
Note 1—
This Part contains rules about T lights and B lights. These are traffic signals that operate in the same way as, or together with, traffic lights but apply only to drivers of trams, public buses and, in the case of B lights, to other vehicles if specified by another law of this jurisdiction. An example of a T light is shown in rule 278 and an example of a B light is shown in rule 285.
Note 2—
Rule 309 sets out a number of exemptions from the Australian Road Rules for drivers of trams and public buses travelling along tram tracks. Some other rules have exceptions for drivers of trams or particular trams.
Division 1 Trams
Note—
Public bus, T lights, tram and travelling along tram tracks are defined in the dictionary.
273   Division also applies to public buses travelling along tram tracks
This Division applies to the driver of a public bus travelling along tram tracks as if a reference in the Division to a tram included a reference to a public bus travelling along tram tracks.
274   Stopping for a red T light
The driver of a tram approaching or at T lights showing a red T light must stop:
(a)  if there is a stop line at or near the T lights—as near as practicable to, but before reaching, the stop line, or
(b)  if there is no stop line at or near the T lights—as near as practicable to, but before reaching, the nearest or only T lights.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Red T light and stop line are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 276 explains when the driver of a tram does not have to stop for a red T light.
275   Stopping for a yellow T light
The driver of a tram approaching or at T lights showing a yellow T light must stop:
(a)  if there is a stop line at or near the T lights and the driver can stop safely before reaching the stop line—as near as practicable to, but before reaching, the stop line, or
(b)  if there is no stop line at or near the T lights and the driver can stop safely before reaching the T lights—as near as practicable to, but before reaching, the nearest or only T lights.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Yellow T light and stop line are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 276 explains when the driver of a tram does not have to stop for a yellow T light.
276   Exception to stopping for a red or yellow T light
The driver of a tram approaching or at T lights showing a red or yellow T light does not have to stop if a white traffic arrow is also showing and the driver is turning in the direction indicated by the arrow.
Note—
Red T light, white traffic arrow and yellow T light are defined in the dictionary.
277   Proceeding after stopping for a red or yellow T light
The driver of a tram who stops for T lights showing a red or yellow T light must not proceed until:
(a)  a white T light is showing, or
(b)  no T light is showing and traffic lights at or near the T lights are showing a green traffic light.
Offence provision.
Note—
Green traffic light, red T light, traffic lights, white T light and yellow T light are defined in the dictionary. A diagram of a white T light is shown in rule 278.
278   Proceeding when a red traffic light and a white T light or white traffic arrow is showing
(1)  The driver of a tram approaching or at a white T light at or near traffic lights showing a red traffic light may proceed straight ahead, or turn, despite the red traffic light.
Note—
Red traffic light, straight ahead, traffic lights and white T light are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  The driver of a tram approaching or at a white traffic arrow at or near traffic lights showing a red traffic light may turn in the direction indicated by the arrow, despite the red traffic light.
Note—
White traffic arrow is defined in the dictionary.
White T light
279   Proceeding when a white T light or white traffic arrow is no longer showing
(1)  This rule applies to:
(a)  the driver of a tram at an intersection with T lights showing a white T light who has stopped after the stop line, or nearest or only T lights, at the intersection, or
(b)  the driver of a tram at an intersection with traffic arrows showing a white traffic arrow who is turning in the direction indicated by the arrow and has stopped after the stop line, or nearest or only traffic arrows, at the intersection.
Example—
The driver of a tram may stop after the stop line at an intersection with T lights showing a white T light, and not proceed through the intersection, because the intersection, or a road beyond the intersection, is blocked by traffic.
Note—
Intersection, stop line, traffic arrows, white T light and white traffic arrow are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  If the T lights or traffic arrows change to yellow or red, or turn off, while the driver is stopped and the driver has not entered the intersection, the driver must not proceed until:
(a)  a white T light is showing, or
(b)  there is no T light showing, and traffic lights at or near the T lights are showing a green traffic light, or
(c)  if the driver is turning at the intersection—a white traffic arrow is showing that indicates the direction in which the driver is turning.
Offence provision.
Note—
Enter, green traffic light, red traffic arrow and yellow traffic arrow are defined in the dictionary.
(3)  If the T lights or traffic arrows change to yellow or red, or turn off, while the driver is stopped and the driver has entered the intersection, the driver must leave the intersection as soon as the driver can do so safely.
Offence provision.
Division 2 Public buses
Note—
B lights and public bus are defined in the dictionary.
280   Division does not apply to public buses travelling along tram tracks
(1)  This Division does not apply to the driver of a public bus travelling along tram tracks.
Note—
The rules in Division 1 of this Part apply to drivers of public buses travelling along tram tracks—see rule 273.
(2)  This Division applies to the driver of a vehicle other than a public bus, in the same way as it applies to the driver of a public bus, if:
(a)  the vehicle being driven by the driver is in a class of vehicles specified for this rule by another law of this jurisdiction, and
(b)  the driver is driving in a bus lane to which B lights apply, and
(c)  the driver is permitted to drive in the lane under another law of this jurisdiction.
281   Stopping for a red B light
The driver of a public bus approaching or at B lights showing a red B light must stop:
(a)  if there is a stop line at or near the B lights—as near as practicable to, but before reaching, the stop line, or
(b)  if there is no stop line at or near the B lights—as near as practicable to, but before reaching, the nearest or only B lights.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Red B light and stop line are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 283 explains when the driver of a public bus does not have to stop for a red B light.
282   Stopping for a yellow B light
The driver of a public bus approaching or at B lights showing a yellow B light must stop:
(a)  if there is a stop line at or near the B lights and the driver can stop safely before reaching the stop line—as near as practicable to, but before reaching, the stop line, or
(b)  if there is no stop line at or near the B lights and the driver can stop safely before reaching the B lights—as near as practicable to, but before reaching, the nearest or only B lights.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Yellow B light and stop line are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 283 explains when the driver of a public bus does not have to stop for a yellow B light.
283   Exception to stopping for a red or yellow B light
The driver of a public bus approaching or at B lights showing a red or yellow B light does not have to stop if a white traffic arrow is also showing and the driver is turning in the direction indicated by the arrow.
Note—
Red B light, white traffic arrow and yellow B light are defined in the dictionary.
284   Proceeding after stopping for a red or yellow B light
The driver of a public bus who stops for B lights showing a red or yellow B light must not proceed until:
(a)  a white B light is showing, or
(b)  no B light is showing and traffic lights at or near the B lights are showing a green traffic light.
Offence provision.
Note—
Green traffic light, red B light, traffic lights, white B light and yellow B light are defined in the dictionary. A diagram of a white B light is shown in rule 285.
285   Proceeding when a red traffic light and a white B light or white traffic arrow is showing
(1)  The driver of a public bus approaching or at a white B light at or near traffic lights showing a red traffic light may proceed straight ahead, or turn, despite the red traffic light.
Note—
Red traffic light, straight ahead, traffic lights and white B light are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  The driver of a public bus approaching or at a white traffic arrow at or near traffic lights showing a red traffic light may turn in the direction indicated by the arrow, despite the red traffic light.
Note—
White traffic arrow is defined in the dictionary.
White B light
286   Proceeding when a white B light or white traffic arrow is no longer showing
(1)  This rule applies to:
(a)  the driver of a public bus at an intersection with B lights showing a white B light who has stopped after the stop line, or nearest or only B lights, at the intersection, or
(b)  the driver of a public bus at an intersection with traffic arrows showing a white traffic arrow who is turning in the direction indicated by the arrow and has stopped after the stop line, or nearest or only traffic arrows, at the intersection.
Example—
The driver of a public bus may stop after the stop line at an intersection with B lights showing a white B light, and not proceed through the intersection, because the intersection, or a road beyond the intersection, is blocked by traffic.
Note—
Intersection, stop line, traffic arrows, white B light and white traffic arrow are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  If the B lights or traffic arrows change to yellow or red, or turn off, while the driver is stopped and the driver has not entered the intersection, the driver must not proceed until:
(a)  a white B light is showing, or
(b)  there is no B light showing, and traffic lights at or near the B lights are showing a green traffic light, or
(c)  if the driver is turning at the intersection—a white traffic arrow is showing that indicates the direction in which the driver is turning.
Offence provision.
Note—
Enter, green traffic light, red traffic arrow and yellow traffic arrow are defined in the dictionary.
(3)  If the B lights or traffic arrows change to yellow or red, or turn off, while the driver is stopped and the driver has entered the intersection, the driver must leave the intersection as soon as the driver can do so safely.
Offence provision.
Part 18 Miscellaneous road rules
Division 1 Miscellaneous rules for drivers
287   Duties of a driver involved in a crash
(1)  A driver involved in a crash must comply with this rule.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Crash is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
The law of this jurisdiction also requires a driver involved in a crash to stop and give assistance to anyone who is injured.
(2)  The driver (or the driver’s representative) must give the driver’s required particulars, within the required time and, if practicable, at the scene of the crash, to:
(a)  any other driver (or that driver’s representative) involved in the crash, and
(b)  any other person involved in the crash who is injured, or the person’s representative, and
(c)  the owner of any property (including any vehicle) damaged in the crash (or the owner’s representative), unless, in the case of damage to a vehicle, the particulars are given to the driver of the vehicle (or the driver’s representative).
(3)  The driver (or the driver’s representative) must also give the driver’s required particulars, within the required time, to a police officer if:
(a)  anyone is killed or injured in the crash, or
(b)  the driver does not, for any reason, give the driver’s required particulars to each person mentioned in subrule (2), or
(c)  the required particulars for any other driver involved in the crash are not given to the driver, or
(d)  a vehicle involved in the crash is towed or carried away by another vehicle (except if another law of this jurisdiction provides that the crash is not required to be reported), or
(e)  the crash is required to be reported to a police officer under another law of this jurisdiction.
Note—
Police officer is defined in the dictionary.
(4)  For this rule:
required particulars, for a driver involved in a crash, means:
(a)  the driver’s name and address, and
(b)  the name and address of the owner of the driver’s vehicle, and
(c)  the vehicle’s registration number (if any), and
(d)  any other information necessary to identify the vehicle,
and, for subrule (3), includes any other information required to be given to a police officer about the crash under another law of this jurisdiction.
Note—
Driver’s vehicle is defined in the dictionary.
required time, for a driver involved in a crash, means as soon as possible but, except in exceptional circumstances, within 24 hours after the crash.
288   Driving on a path
(1)  A driver (except the rider of a bicycle) must not drive on a path, unless subrule (2) or (3) applies to the driver.
Offence provision.
Note—
Bicycle is defined in the dictionary, and path is defined in subrule (6).
(2)  A driver may drive on a path if the driver is:
(a)  driving on a part of the path indicated by information on or with a traffic control device as a part where vehicles may drive, or
(b)  driving on the path to enter or leave, by the shortest practicable route, a road-related area or adjacent land and there is not a part of the path indicated by information on or with a traffic control device as a part where vehicles may drive, or
(c)  permitted to drive on the path under another law of this jurisdiction.
Note—
Adjacent land, traffic control device and with are defined in the dictionary, and road-related area is defined in rule 13.
(3)  A driver may drive a motorised wheelchair on a path if:
(a)  the unladen mass of the wheelchair is not over 110 kilograms, and
(b)  the wheelchair is not travelling over 10 kilometres per hour, and
(c)  because of the driver’s physical condition, the driver has a reasonable need to use a wheelchair.
Note—
Wheelchair is defined in the dictionary.
(4)  A driver on a path (except the rider of a bicycle, or a driver driving on the path to enter a road from a road-related area or adjacent land, or to enter a road-related area or adjacent land from a road) must give way to all other road users, and to animals, on the path.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Road user is defined in rule 14.
Note 2—
For this subrule, give way means the driver must slow down and, if necessary, stop to avoid a collision—see the definition in the dictionary.
Note 3—
Rules 74 and 75 deal with drivers giving way when crossing a footpath or other path to enter or leave a road-related area or adjacent land.
Note 4—
Rules 249 to 251 deal with bicycle riders riding on footpaths, separated paths and shared paths.
(5)  This rule does not apply to the rider of an animal riding the animal on a footpath.
Note 1—
Footpath is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
The rider of an animal on a footpath must give way to a pedestrian on the path—see rule 302.
(6)  In this rule:
path means a bicycle path, footpath or shared path.
Note—
Bicycle path is defined in rule 239, footpath is defined in the dictionary and shared path is defined in rule 242.
289   Driving on a nature strip
(1)  A driver must not drive on a nature strip adjacent to a length of road in a built-up area, unless the driver is:
(a)  entering or leaving, by the shortest practicable route, an area on the nature strip indicated by information on or with a traffic control device as an area where vehicles may drive, or
(b)  driving on a part of the nature strip indicated by information on or with a traffic control device as a part where vehicles may drive, or
(c)  driving on the nature strip to enter or leave, by the shortest practicable route, a road-related area or adjacent land and there is not a part of the nature strip indicated by information on or with a traffic control device as a part where vehicles may drive, or
(d)  riding a bicycle or animal, and there is not another law of this jurisdiction prohibiting the rider from riding a bicycle or animal on the nature strip, or
(e)  driving a ride-on lawnmower that is cutting grass on the nature strip, or
(f)  driving a motorised wheelchair, or
(g)  permitted to drive on the nature strip under another law of this jurisdiction.
Offence provision.
Note—
Adjacent land, bicycle, built-up area, length of road, nature strip, traffic control device, wheelchair and with are defined in the dictionary, and road-related area is defined in rule 13.
(2)  A driver driving on a nature strip (except the rider of an animal, or a driver driving on the nature strip to enter a road from a road-related area or adjacent land, or to enter a road-related area or adjacent land from a road) must give way to all other road users, and to animals, on the nature strip.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Road user is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
For subrule (2), give way means the driver must slow down and, if necessary, stop to avoid a collision—see the definition in the dictionary.
Note 3—
Rules 74 and 75 deal with drivers giving way when crossing a nature strip adjacent to a road to enter or leave a road-related area or adjacent land.
Note 4—
The rider of an animal on a nature strip must give way to any pedestrian on the nature strip—see rule 302.
290   Driving on a traffic island
A driver must not drive on a traffic island (except the central traffic island in a roundabout), unless:
(a)  the traffic island is designed to allow vehicles to be driven on it, or
(b)  the driver is permitted to drive on the traffic island under another law of this jurisdiction.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Roundabout is defined in rule 109, and traffic island is defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
A driver must drive to the left of the central traffic island in a roundabout except in certain circumstances—see rule 115.
291   Making unnecessary noise or smoke
A person must not start a vehicle, or drive a vehicle, in a way that makes unnecessary noise or smoke.
Offence provision.
Example—
Causing the wheels of the driver’s vehicle to lose traction and spin on the road surface may make unnecessary noise or smoke.
Note—
Other laws of this jurisdiction also deal with vehicles and equipment that make noise or smoke.
292   Insecure or overhanging load
A driver must not drive or tow a vehicle if the vehicle is carrying a load that:
(a)  is not properly secured to the vehicle, or
(b)  is placed on the vehicle in a way that causes the vehicle to be unstable, or
(c)  projects from the vehicle in a way that is likely to injure a person, obstruct the path of other drivers or pedestrians, or damage a vehicle or anything else (for example, the road surface).
Offence provision.
Note—
Other laws of this jurisdiction may deal with the loading of vehicles and carrying loads on vehicles.
293   Removing fallen etc things from the road
(1)  This rule applies to a driver if:
(a)  something falls onto the road from the driver’s vehicle, or the driver, or a passenger in or on the driver’s vehicle, puts something on the road, and
(b)  there is a possibility that the thing, if left on the road, may injure a person, obstruct the path of other drivers or pedestrians, or damage a vehicle or anything else (for example, the road surface).
Note—
Driver’s vehicle is defined in the dictionary.
(2)  The driver must remove the thing, or take action to have the thing removed, from the road as soon as the driver can do so safely.
Offence provision.
Examples of things—
1  Fallen loads.
2  Oil or grease.
3  Debris from an accident.
4  Wheel chocks.
Note—
Rule 165 (e) provides a defence to the prosecution of a driver for an offence against a provision of Part 12 (Restrictions on stopping and parking) if the driver stops to comply with another provision of the Australian Road Rules (including this rule).
(3)  In this rule:
put, something onto the road, includes:
(a)  throw, drop or propel the thing onto the road, and
(b)  otherwise cause the thing to be on the road.
294   Keeping control of a vehicle being towed
(1)  The driver of a motor vehicle must not tow another motor vehicle unless:
(a)  either:
(i)  the driver can control the movement of the towed vehicle, or
(ii)  the brakes and steering of the towed vehicle are in working order and a person who is licensed to drive the towed vehicle is sitting in the driver’s seat of the towed vehicle, and is in control of its brakes and steering, and
(b)  it is safe to tow the towed vehicle.
Offence provision.
Note—
Motor vehicle is defined in the dictionary.
(2)  The driver of a motor vehicle must not tow a trailer unless:
(a)  the driver can control the movement of the trailer, and
(b)  it is safe to tow the trailer.
Offence provision.
Note—
Trailer is defined in the dictionary.
295   Motor vehicle towing another vehicle with a towline
(1)  The driver of a motor vehicle towing another vehicle using a chain, rope, fabric, strap or wire (the towline) must comply with this rule.
Offence provision.
Note—
Motor vehicle is defined in the dictionary, and vehicle is defined in rule 15.
(2)  If neither of the vehicles is a motor bike, the driver must keep a distance of not over 4 metres between the vehicles.
Note—
Motor bike is defined in the dictionary.
(3)  If at least 1 of the vehicles is a motor bike, the driver must keep a distance of not over 2.5 metres between the vehicles.
(4)  If the towline is longer than 2 metres, the driver must attach a white or brightly coloured flag, piece of cloth or other similar material (the warning material) to the towline in accordance with subrule (5).
(5)  The warning material must:
(a)  be substantially square or rectangular with 2 adjacent sides at least 300 millimetres long, and
(b)  be attached midway along the towline, and
(c)  be visible for at least 100 metres from either side of the warning material.
(6)  Subrule (2), (3) or (4) does not apply to a driver if the driver is exempt from the subrule under another law of this jurisdiction and is complying with the conditions (if any) of the exemption.
296   Driving a vehicle in reverse
(1)  The driver of a vehicle must not reverse the vehicle unless the driver can do so safely.
Offence provision.
(2)  The driver of a vehicle must not reverse the vehicle further than is reasonable in the circumstances.
Offence provision.
297   Driver to have proper control of a vehicle etc
(1)  A driver must not drive a vehicle unless the driver has proper control of the vehicle.
Offence provision.
(2)  A driver must not drive a motor vehicle unless the driver has a clear view of the road, and traffic, ahead, behind and to each side of the driver.
Offence provision.
Note—
Motor vehicle is defined in the dictionary.
298   Driving with a person in a trailer
A driver must not drive a motor vehicle towing a trailer with a person in or on the trailer, unless the trailer is exempt from this rule under another law of this jurisdiction.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Motor vehicle and trailer are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Rule 257 deals with persons travelling in or on bicycle trailers.
299   Television receivers and visual display units in motor vehicles
(1)  A driver must not drive a motor vehicle that has a television receiver or visual display unit in or on the vehicle operating while the vehicle is moving, or is stationary but not parked, if any part of the image on the screen:
(a)  is visible to the driver from the normal driving position, or
(b)  is likely to distract another driver.
Offence provision.
Note—
Motor vehicle and park are defined in the dictionary, and vehicle is defined in rule 15.
(2)  This rule does not apply to the driver if:
(a)  the driver is driving a bus and the visual display unit is, or displays, a destination sign or other bus sign, or
(b)  the visual display unit is, or is part of, a driver’s aid, or
(c)  the driver or vehicle is exempt from this rule under another law of this jurisdiction.
Examples of driver’s aids.
1  Closed-circuit television security cameras.
2  Dispatch systems.
3  Navigational or intelligent highway and vehicle system equipment.
4  Rearview screens.
5  Ticket-issuing machines.
6  Vehicle monitoring devices.
Note—
Bus is defined in the dictionary.
300   Use of hand-held mobile phones
(1)  The driver of a vehicle (except an emergency vehicle or police vehicle) must not use a hand-held mobile phone while the vehicle is moving, or is stationary but not parked, unless the driver is exempt from this rule under another law of this jurisdiction.
Offence provision.
Note—
Emergency vehicle, park and police vehicle are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  In this rule:
mobile phone does not include a CB radio or any other two-way radio.
Division 2 Rules for people in charge of animals
301   Leading an animal while driving a vehicle
A person must not lead an animal while driving a motor vehicle or riding a bicycle, unless the person is permitted to do so under another law of this jurisdiction.
Offence provision.
Note—
Bicycle and motor vehicle are defined in the dictionary.
302   Rider of an animal on a footpath or nature strip to give way to pedestrians
The rider of an animal must give way to any pedestrian on a footpath or nature strip.
Offence provision.
Note 1—
Footpath and nature strip are defined in the dictionary, and pedestrian is defined in rule 18.
Note 2—
For this rule, give way means the rider must slow down and, if necessary, stop to avoid a collision—see the definition in the dictionary.
303   Riding an animal alongside more than 1 other rider
(1)  The rider of an animal must not ride on a road that is not a multi-lane road alongside more than 1 other rider, unless subrule (3) applies to the rider.
Offence provision.
Note—
Multi-lane road is defined in the dictionary, and rider is defined in rule 17.
(2)  The rider of an animal must not ride in a marked lane alongside more than 1 other rider in the marked lane, unless subrule (3) applies to the rider.
Offence provision.
Note—
Marked lane is defined in the dictionary.
(3)  The rider of an animal may ride alongside more than 1 other rider if the rider is:
(a)  overtaking the other riders or droving stock, or
(b)  permitted to do so under another law of this jurisdiction.
Note—
Overtake is defined in the dictionary.
(4)  If the rider of an animal is riding on a road that is not a multi-lane road alongside another rider, or in a marked lane alongside another rider in the marked lane, the rider must ride not over 1.5 metres from the other rider.
Offence provision.
(5)  In this rule:
road does not include a road-related area, but includes a bicycle path, shared path and any shoulder of the road.
Note—
Bicycle path is defined in rule 239, road-related area is defined in rule 13, shared path is defined in rule 242, and shoulder is defined in rule 12.
Division 3 Obeying directions
304   Direction by a police officer or authorised person
(1)  A person must obey any reasonable direction for the safe and efficient regulation of traffic given to the person by a police officer or authorised person, whether or not the person may contravene another provision of the Australian Road Rules by obeying the direction.
Offence provision.
Note—
Authorised person and police officer are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  It is a defence to the prosecution of a person for an offence against a provision of the Australian Road Rules if, at the time of the offence, the person was obeying a direction given to the person under subrule (1).
Part 19 Exemptions
305   Exemption for drivers of police vehicles
(1)  A provision of the Australian Road Rules does not apply to the driver of a police vehicle if:
(a)  in the circumstances:
(i)  the driver is taking reasonable care, and
(ii)  it is reasonable that the provision should not apply, and
(b)  if the vehicle is a motor vehicle that is moving—the vehicle is displaying a blue or red flashing light or sounding an alarm.
Note—
Motor vehicle and police vehicle are defined in the dictionary.
(2)  Subrule (1) (b) does not apply to the driver if, in the circumstances, it is reasonable:
(a)  not to display the light or sound the alarm, or
(b)  for the vehicle not to be fitted or equipped with a blue or red flashing light or an alarm.
306   Exemption for drivers of emergency vehicles
A provision of the Australian Road Rules does not apply to the driver of an emergency vehicle if:
(a)  in the circumstances:
(i)  the driver is taking reasonable care, and
(ii)  it is reasonable that the rule should not apply, and
(b)  if the vehicle is a motor vehicle that is moving—the vehicle is displaying a blue or red flashing light or sounding an alarm.
Note—
Emergency vehicle and motor vehicle are defined in the dictionary.
307   Stopping and parking exemption for police and emergency vehicles and authorised persons
(1)  A provision of Part 12 does not apply to the driver of a police vehicle or emergency vehicle if, in the circumstances:
(a)  the driver is taking reasonable care, and
(b)  it is reasonable that the provision should not apply.
Note 1—
Emergency vehicle and police vehicle are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Part 12 deals with restrictions on stopping and parking.
(2)  A provision of Part 12 does not apply to a driver who is an authorised person driving a vehicle in the course of his or her duty as an authorised person if, in the circumstances:
(a)  the driver is taking reasonable care, and
(b)  it is reasonable that the provision should not apply.
Note—
Authorised person is defined in the dictionary.
308   Exemption for police officers and emergency workers on foot
A provision in Part 14 does not apply to a police officer or emergency worker acting in the course of his or her duty if, in the circumstances:
(a)  the police officer or emergency worker is taking reasonable care, and
(b)  it is reasonable that the provision should not apply.
Note 1—
Emergency worker and police officer are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
Part 14 provides rules for pedestrians.
309   Exemption for drivers of trams etc
The following provisions do not apply to the driver of a tram, or a public bus travelling along tram tracks:
  Part 4 (Making turns), Division 1 (Left turns at intersections)
  rule 88 (Left turn signs)
  rule 89 (Right turn signs)
  rule 90 (No turns signs)
  rule 91 (No left turn and no right turn signs)
  rule 92 (Traffic lane arrows)
  rule 99 (Keep left and keep right signs)
  rule 100 (No entry signs)
  Part 9 (Roundabouts)
  Part 11 (Keeping left, overtaking and other driving rules), Divisions 2 (Keeping to the left), 3 (Overtaking), and 7 (Passing trams and safety zones)
  Part 12 (Restrictions on stopping and parking).
Note—
Public bus, tram and travelling along tram tracks are defined in the dictionary.
310   Exemption for road workers etc
(1)  A provision mentioned in subrule (2) does not apply to a person at the site of, and engaged in, roadworks if, in the circumstances:
(a)  it is not practicable for the person to comply with the provision, and
(b)  sufficient warning of the roadworks has been given to other road users.
Note—
Roadworks is defined in subrule (4).
(2)  Subrule (1) applies to the following provisions:
  Part 4 (Making turns), Division 1 (Left turns at intersections) and Division 2 (Right turns (except hook turns) at intersections)
  Part 7 (Giving way), except:
  rule 67 (Stopping and giving way at a stop sign or stop line at an intersection without traffic lights)
  rule 68 (Stopping and giving way at a stop sign or stop line at other places)
  rule 69 (Giving way at a give way sign or give way line at an intersection)
  rule 70 (Giving way at a give way sign at a bridge or length of narrow road)
  rule 71 (Giving way at a give way sign or give way line at other places)
  Part 8 (Traffic signs and road markings), except:
  rule 102 (Clearance and low clearance signs)
  rule 103 (Load limit signs)
  Part 11 (Keeping left, overtaking and other driving rules)
  Part 12 (Restrictions on stopping and parking)
  rule 224 (Using horns and similar warning devices)
  Part 14 (Rules for pedestrians), except rule 236 (1) (which is about causing a traffic hazard by moving into the path of an approaching vehicle)
  rule 264 (Wearing of seatbelts by drivers)
  rule 265 (Wearing of seatbelts by passengers 16 years old, or older)
  rule 268 (How persons must travel in or on a motor vehicle)
  rule 288 (Driving on a path)
  rule 289 (Driving on a nature strip)
  rule 290 (Driving on a traffic island)
  rule 295 (Motor vehicle towing another vehicle with a towline)
  rule 296 (Driving a vehicle in reverse)
  rule 297 (2) (which requires a driver to have a clear view of the surrounding road and traffic)
  rule 298 (Driving with a person in a trailer).
(3)  Rule 20 (Obeying the speed-limit) does not apply to a driver:
(a)  driving a snow-clearing vehicle and engaged in snow-clearing, or
(b)  driving a motor vehicle and engaged in speed zoning tests authorised under another law of this jurisdiction.
(4)  In this rule:
roadworks means:
(a)  construction or maintenance of a road, or
(b)  road cleaning, or
(c)  installation or maintenance work authorised under another law of this jurisdiction on, above or below a road, or
(d)  installation or maintenance of a traffic control device, traffic-related item or traffic monitoring device, or
(e)  a traffic survey authorised under another law of this jurisdiction, or
(f)  a road surface survey test.
Note 1—
Traffic control device and traffic-related item are defined in the dictionary.
Note 2—
A person may need to be authorised under another law of this jurisdiction to carry out roadworks or tests mentioned in this rule.
311   Exemption for oversize vehicles
(1)  A provision mentioned in subrule (2) does not apply to the driver of an oversize vehicle, or the driver of a vehicle escorting or piloting an oversize vehicle, if:
(a)  it is not practicable for the driver to comply with the provision, and
(b)  the driver is taking reasonable care, and
(c)  the driver is complying with any other relevant law of this jurisdiction relating to oversize vehicles, including the conditions of any permit or authority issued in relation to the oversize vehicle.
Note—
Oversize vehicle is defined in the dictionary.
(2)  For subrule (1), the provisions are as follows:
  Part 7 (Giving way), except:
  rule 67 (Stopping and giving way at a stop sign or stop line at an intersection without traffic lights)
  rule 68 (Stopping and giving way at a stop sign or stop line at other places)
  rule 69 (Giving way at a give way sign or give way line at an intersection)
  rule 70 (Giving way at a give way sign at a bridge or length of narrow road)
  rule 71 (Giving way at a give way sign or give way line at other places)
  Part 8 (Traffic signs and road markings), except:
  rule 102 (Clearance and low clearance signs)
  rule 103 (Load limit signs)
  rule 111 (3) (which is about entering a roundabout from the right marked lane or line of traffic)
  rule 116 (Obeying traffic lane arrows when driving in or leaving a roundabout)
  Part 11 (Keeping left, overtaking and other driving rules)
  Part 12 (Restrictions on stopping and parking)
  rule 268 (How persons must travel in or on a motor vehicle)
  rule 288 (Driving on a path)
  rule 289 (Driving on a nature strip)
  rule 290 (Driving on a traffic island)
  rule 296 (Driving a vehicle in reverse)
  rule 297 (2) (which requires a driver to have a clear view of the surrounding road and traffic).
312   Exemption for tow truck drivers
(1)  It is a defence to the prosecution of the driver of a tow truck for an offence against a provision mentioned in subrule (2) if, at the time of the offence:
(a)  the driver is engaged in loading, or connecting to, a vehicle to which this rule applies, and
(b)  the driver is unable to comply with the provision, and
(c)  the tow truck is displaying a flashing light, and
(d)  the driver is acting safely.
(2)  For subrule (1), the provisions are as follows:
  Part 4 (Making turns)
  Part 6 (Traffic lights and twin red lights)
  Part 7 (Giving way), Division 1 (Places with stop signs, stop lines, give way signs or give way lines)
  Part 8 (Traffic signs and road markings)
  Part 9 (Roundabouts)
  Part 11 (Keeping left, overtaking and other driving rules)
  Part 12 (Restrictions on stopping and parking)
  rule 288 (Driving on a path)
  rule 289 (Driving on a nature strip)
  rule 290 (Driving on a traffic island).
(3)  This rule applies to the following vehicles:
(a)  a vehicle at the scene of a crash,
(b)  a disabled vehicle,
(c)  a vehicle unsafely or unlawfully parked that the driver is authorised to tow away under another law of this jurisdiction.
Note—
Crash is defined in the dictionary, and vehicle is defined in rule 15.
313   Exemption for postal vehicles
(1)  Another law of this jurisdiction may provide that a provision mentioned in subrule (2) does not apply to the driver of a postal vehicle.
Note—
Postal vehicle is defined in the dictionary.
(2)  This rule applies to the following provisions:
  rule 179 (Stopping in a loading zone)
  rule 180 (Stopping in a truck zone)
  rule 182 (Stopping in a taxi zone)
  rule 184 (Stopping in a minibus zone)
  rule 185 (Stopping in a permit zone)
  rule 186 (Stopping in a mail zone)
  rule 189 (Double parking)
  rule 190 (Stopping in or near a safety zone)
  rule 191 (Stopping near an obstruction)
  rule 192 (Stopping on a bridge or in a tunnel etc)
  rule 193 (Stopping on a crest or curve outside a built-up area)
  rule 198 (Obstructing access to and from a footpath, driveway etc)
  rule 288 (Driving on a path).
Part 20 Traffic control devices and traffic-related items
Division 1 General
Note—
Traffic control device and traffic-related item are defined in the dictionary.
314   Diagrams of traffic control devices, traffic-related items and symbols
(1)  A diagram in the Australian Road Rules of a traffic control device, traffic-related item, or symbol, represents a likeness of the device, item or symbol.
(2)  If there are 2 or more diagrams of a traffic sign in Schedules 2 and 3, or of a traffic-related item or symbol in Schedule 4, each diagram re